Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 4471

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1356 - 1358 Full Version

A Clinicomycological Study of Pityriasis Versicolor with a Special Referance to the Calcofluor White Stain


Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2011/.1663
Jyoti S Kabbin, D Vijaya, Meera D Meundi, B Leelavathy

1. M.D., Associate Professor Department of Microbiology Bowring & Lady Curzon Hospital Bangalore- 560001. 2. M.D., Professor of Microbiology Incharge, Departement Of Microbiology Bowring & Lady Curzon Hospital Bangalore- 560001. 3. M.D., Professor & HOD Department of Microbiology Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore-560001. 4. M.D., Professor & HOD Dermatology Bowring & Lady Curzon Hospital, Bangalore 560001.

Correspondence Address :
Jyoti S. Kabbin
H.No. 318, 3rd Floor
Sharavathi, B-4 Block
National Games Village
Koramangal, Bagalore-560042
E-mail: Drjyotiskabbin@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: The mycological study of Pityriasis versicolor by doing Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount preparations and cultures is simple, but both the techniques have their own limitations. The isolation of the organism is very difficult because it is lipophilic and it needs special media to grow, which takes time. The present study suggests that the Calcoflour white stain can be used for the preliminary identification of the fungal elements, so that clinicians can start with the treatment.

Aim: The aim of this study was to know the advantage of Calcofluor white staining versus the conventional methods which are used for the demonstration of the fungi in cases of Pityriasis versicolor.

Methods: Over a period of one year, from October 2004 to November 2005, a total of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of Pityriasis versicolor were referred from the Department of Dermatology to the Department of Microbiology, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital which is attached to the Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore. Skin scrapings from affected lesions were processed by doing KOH preparations, Calcoflour white staining and cultures.

Results: Out of the 100 cases which were studied, the maximum number of cases were in age group of 12 to 21 yrs (51%). Males 71(71%) were affected more than females 29(29%). 98(98%) samples were positive for the fungi by Calcoflour white staining, 92(92%) by the KOH preparation and 46(46%) by culture.

Conclusion: Calcoflour white staining picked up an additional four samples which were reported as negative by the KOH preparation and the culture. Two other samples were reported to be positive by Calcoflour white staining and culture and to be negative by the KOH preparation. Calcoflour white staining is a rapid, simple, sensitive and highly reliable method for identifying fungi, as it provides a good definition of the fine fungal structures and a better contrast from the background debris, cells and tissue fragments.

Keywords

Calcoflour white stain (CFW) , Pityriasis versicolor, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount preparation

INTRODUCTION
Pityriasis versicolor is a cutaneous, superficial, fungal infection which is characterized by skin pigmentary changes due to the colonization of the stratum corneum by dimorphic, lipophilic fungi in the normal flora of the skin, which is known as Malassezia furfur (1). The genus, Malassezia, has been recently shown to consist of seven species (2). The one lipid independent species is Malassezia pachydermatis and the six lipid dependent species are Malasezia furfur, Malaseezia sympodialis, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia obtuse, Malassezia restrica, and Malassezia sloffiae, which were identified by partial, ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons (3). The aim of this study was to know the advantage of the Calcofluor white staining versus the conventional methods for the demonstration of fungi in cases of Pityriasis versicolor.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted over a period of one year from October 2004 to November 2005. A total of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of Pityriasis versicolor were referred from the Department of Dermatology, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital which is attached to the Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore. A detailed history elicitation and clinical examination were performed on each case. The affected skin area was thoroughly sponged with 70% alcohol to remove the surface contaminants. After drying, the active edges of the lesions were scraped with a flame sterilized, No. 15 scalpelblade. The skin scrapings were processed by direct microscopic examination which included a 10% KOH preparation, a 10% KOH with Parker ink preparation, a 10% KOH with Methylene blue preparation and a Calcofluor white stain preparation. Two paired sets of Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) with cyclohexamide, one paired set with olive oil and the other paired set without olive oil were inoculated and incubated for 2 weeks at 25o C and 37oC.

The results were compiled and statistically analyzed.

Results

The study group comprised of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of Pityriasis versicolor. The ages of the study group subjects ranged from 11 to 42 years. A maximum number of patients (51%) belonged to the age group of 12-21 years. Males (71%) were affected more than the females (29%). Most of the patients were of the hypopigmented variety (67%) as compared to the hyperpigmented variety 31(31%) and 2(2%) patients were of mixed variety. The distribution of the skin lesions showed that they were seen more commonly on the chest and back [87(87%) and 13(13%)] over other sites like the face and the abdomen.

Out of the 100 suspected cases of Pityriasis versicolor, 92 (92%) were positive for the fungi by the KOH preparation, as shown in (Table/Fig 1), 98% were positive for fungi by Calcoflour white staining as shown in (Table/Fig 2) and 46(46%) were culture positiveas shown in (Table/Fig 3). Other tests which were used, that is, the Parker ink preparation and the Methylene blue preparation were similar to the KOH preparation in the detection of the organism, as shown in (Table/Fig 3).

Discussion

Pityriasis versicolor is one of the most common disorders of pigmentation in the world (4). In the tropical areas, it has been reported in 30 to 40% of the population and the incidence is lower in temperate climates (1to 4%) (5).The disease is usually brought to the physician’s attention because of its cosmetic effects on the patient (6).The commonest clinical species is thought to be Malassezia furfur (7),(8). The Malaseezia species are fastidious fungi which require the addition of lipids to the culture media and which grow best at a temperature range of 32_37°C in an anaerobic environment (9). Pityriasis versicolor occurs when yeast forms convert to their mycelial forms due to certain predisposing factors. The exogenous factors include heat, moisture and occlusion of the skin due to either clothing or cosmetics (2). Occlusion results in an increased carbon dioxide concentration (10). The endogenous factors include diseased states like seborrheic dermatitis, Cushing’s syndrome, malnutrition and hyperhidrosis (11).

In our study, the lesions were most commonly seen in the age group of 12-21 (51%) years, as has been reported by other workers. Marple et al (12) found the incidence to be 49(49%) in adults, Belec et al (13) during their study, found that the maximium prevalence (23.5%) was in the age group of 15-25 years, Vijaya et al (14).found that the lesions were common in the age group of 21- 30 years, (56%) and Rao et al (15) found in their study that 30% of the patients belonged to the age group of 21-30 years.

The disease may occur at any age, but it is more common during adolescence and in young adults due to an increase in the sebaceous activity (16) and hormonal changes.

The present study showed a pre-dominant involvement of males as compared to females, as in the following studies; Roberts et al (11)found the ratio of males to females to be about 3:2 among the patients in the United Kingdom, Kim and Suh et al (17) found it to be 2:1 among Korean patients, Belec et al (13) found that males were affected more than females, Vijaya et al (14) found more males (78%) than females (22%) among 100 patients and Rao et al (15) reported that more males (73.33%) were affected in comparison to the females (26.60%). The higher incidence of Pityriasis versicolor in males may be due to their outdoor activities (14). The type of lesions were more hypopigmented (67%) than hyper pigmented (31%), which was similar to that which was reported in the study of Rao et al (15). The distribution of the skin lesions commonly occurred over the chest and the upper back (87%) in our study among 100 patients. These observations were in conformity with the findings of Roberts et al, who found that 92% of the patients carried them on their trunk, Belec at el (13) who found that the lesions commonly occurred over the upper arm, and the trunk (48.6%), Vijaya et al (14), who found that the lesions were more common over the chest and the back (85%) and Rao et al (15) who found that the lesions were seen commonly over the back (70%) and the chest (58.30%). The distribution of the lesions generally parallels the density of the sebaceous gland distribution, with a greater occurrence on the chest and the back (18).

In this study, Calcoflour white staining was positive in 98(98%) patients as compared to the KOH preparation [92(92%) patients].

The causative agent was isolated in 46(46%) patients. Our results were in conformity with the findings of Maheswari et al (19), who found that 96% of the patients were positive for the KOH preparation out of 100 cases and that 70% patients were positive for culture, Shanker et al (20) who found that all their 100% cases were positive for KOH and that the culture yielded a positive growth only in 60% patients, Vijaya et al (14) in whose study, 42% out of 100 cases were positive for growth and Rao et al (15) who found 91% patients were positive for KOH and that 40% showed growth on SDA with oil. Kindo et al (21), during their study, found that 70% patients were positive KOH and that 68.75% patients showed growth on Dixon’s agar.

Calcoflour white staining picked up an additional four samples which were reported as negative by KOH and culture. Two other samples were found to be positive by Calcoflour white staining and culture, which were reported as negative by the KOH preparation.

Calcoflour white staining is a rapid, simple, sensitive and a highly reliable method for identifying fungi, as it provides a good definition of the fine fungal structures and better contrast from the background debris (22), cells and tissue fragments. The disadvantage of fluorescent staining is that it requires a fluorescent microscope, expertise in reporting and is expensive. Laboratories will find that investing in a fluorescent microscope will yield better patient care (23). To determine the clinical usefulness and characteristics of each test, Calcoflour white staining was chosen as the gold standard for statistical analysis (24).

To conclude, Calcoflour staining was found to be far superior to the conventional KOH preparation for the detection of fungi in clinical specimens.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the staff of the Microbiology Department, Bowring and L.C.Hospital which is attached to Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore, for their co-operation in this study.

References

1.
Michalwski R, Rodziewicz H. Pityriasis versicolor in children. Br J Dermatol. 1963;75:397-400
2.
Chander J, Text Book of Medical Mycology, India: Mehta publishers, 2002, 2nd Edition.
3.
Gueho E, Midgely G, Guillot J. The genus, Malassezia with a description of four new species. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1996; 69: 337-55.
4.
Peter JS, Robert AS, Camila KJ. Tinea Versicolor. Int J Dermatol Rev. 1998; 37: 648-55.
5.
Faergemann J, Aly R, Maibach HI. Other cutaneous yeast infections. Atlas of infection of the skin. Churchill Livingstone: Philadelpia. 1994:57-60.
6.
Rippon WJ. The Pathologenic fungi and The Pathogenic Actinomycetes. The Textbook of Medical Mycology, London: W.B. Saunders Co.1974: 84-7.
7.
Kwon-Chung, Bennett J E. Infection caused by Malassezia species. Textbook of Medical Mycology, Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. 1992: 170-82.
8.
Laron DH. Malassezia furfur. Medically important fungi: a guide to their identification, 3rd Edition. Washington DC, ASM press.1995; 83.
9.
Anrzejewska E, Adamski Z. The mycologial diagnostics of the lipophilic yeast, Malassezia furfur. Postepy Dermatol (Poznan) 1993;1223-28.
10.
King RD, Cunico RL, Maibach HI. The effect of occlusion on carbon dioxide emission from the human skin. Acta Derm Veneraeol (Stockh) 1978;58:135-8.
11.
Roberts SOB. Pityriasis versicolor: a clinical and mycological investigation. British Journal of Dermatol 1969; 81:315-26.
12.
Marples MJ. The incidence of certain skin diseases in western Samoa; a pre-liminary survey. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1950; 44:319-32.
13.
Belec L, Testa J, Bouree P. Pityriasis Versicolor in the Central African Republic; a randomized study on 144 cases. Journal of Med Vet Mycol 1991; 29(5):323-29.
14.
Vijaya D, Nagarathnamma T, Anand Kumar BH, Rajesh R, Satish N, Savitha G, et al. Study of Pityriasis versicolor. The Antiseptic 1998; 95(4p): 133.
15.
Rao GS, Kuruvilla M, Kumar P, Vinod V. Clinicoepidemiological studies on Tinea Versicolor. Indian Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2002; 68: 208-09.
16.
Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology. A colour guide to diagnosis and therapy. 4th edition, Phildelphia: Mosby. 2004; 451-6.
17.
Kim HS, Suh M S. A clinical and mycological investigation on Tinea versicolor. Korean Journal Mycol. 1982;9:199-207.
18.
Leeming JP, Notman FH, Holland KT. The distribution and the ecology of Malassezoa furfur and the cutaneous bacteria on human skin. J App Bactriol 1989;67:47-52.
19.
Maheswari AS. A mycological study of Tinea versicolor. Indian J Med Res Rev 1981;74:372-9.
20.
Shanker Rao IV, Rajeashekar N, Lava R. Mycological study of Tinea versicolor. Indian Journal of Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1997;63: 168- 69.
21.
Kindo AJ, Sophia SK, Kalyani J, Anandan S. Identification of the Malassezia species. Indian J of Med Microbiol. 2004;22(3):179-81.
22.
Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WC. Koneman’s Colour Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. 6th edition. JB Lippincot company: 26.
23.
Jaber A, Glenn D, Robert. Direct microscopic examination of clinical specimens for the laboratory diagnosis of fungal infections. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. December 1991;24:185-8.
24.
Jeffery MW, Evelyn KK, William DT, Hillarie RT, Lily N. Comparison of the diagnostic methods which are used in the evaluation of onychomycosis. J Am Acad Drrmatol. August 2003:49(2):193-7.

DOI and Others

JCDR/2011/1663

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com