Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 6823

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionKey MessageReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1323 - 1326 Full Version

Low Incidence of the Third Head of the Biceps Brachii in the North Indian Population


Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2011/.1674
Prabhjot Cheema, Rajan Singla

1. Senior Lecturer, MBBS, MS (Anatomy) Department of Anatomy, DHSJ Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Panjab University, Sector – 25, Chandigarh (U.T.), India. 2. Associate Professor, MBBS, MS (Anatomy), Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Prabhjot Cheema
House No. 1658, Phase 7, SAS Nagar,
Mohali, Punjab, India - 160062
Phone: +91 9779073689, +91 172 4657971
E-mail: manindergill2809@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: The biceps brachii is one of the most variable muscles in the body with regards to the number and morphology of its heads of origin. This aspect requires studies and evaluation in different populations because of its important functional and clinical implications.
Objective: To study the incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in the north Indian population and its comparison with other population groups.
Methods: 126 upper limbs of 63 embalmed adult human cadavers were dissected as per the standard methods to note the origin, insertion and the nerve supply of the biceps brachii. Any additional head was particularly looked for.
Result: The three headed biceps brachii was detected unilaterally in three male cadavers, all belonging to the left side. While the short and long head had a normal origin, the third head originated near the insertion of the coracobrachialis and at the origin of the brachialis. It inserted into the muscle belly in two cases and into the bicipital aponeurosis in one case. In all the three cadavers, the third head was supplied by a branch from the musculocutaneous nerve.
Conclusion: The supernumerary heads of the biceps brachii is a frequently encountered anomaly and it has got large variations in its incidence in different population groups. This fact should be kept in mind by the anatomists as well as the clinicians, particularly in populations with a high incidence of it.

Keywords

Biceps brachii, Muscle, Supernumerary heads, Variation

INTRODUCTION
The biceps brachii is the commonest muscle in the body to show variations in the form of supernumerary heads. Normally, the biceps brachii has two heads, the short head originating from the coracoid process and the long head from the supraglenoid tubercle. The two heads join distally to form a common tendon which gets inserted onto the posterior aspect of the radial tuberosity, thus contributing to the flexion and the supination of the forearm. Some aponeurotic and tendinous fibres gain insertion into the bicipital aponeurosis. However, as many as seven heads of the biceps brachii have been reported, the most common one being the third head (1). Some authors (2) have tried to trace the functional aspect of these extra heads by the abnormal movements which they can produce and others (1),(2),(3) have tried to draw clinical implications like the head being mistaken for a tumour or suspecting that it produces compression symptoms. In the present study, the occurrence as well as the morphology of these supernumerary heads have been studied. Further, their phylogeny and functional/clinical implications have been discussed.

Material and Methods

The material for the present study comprised of 126 superior extremities which belonged to 63 embalmed adult human cadavers (M:F::48:15). The cadavers were labeled from 1 to 63 with the suffix R or L for the Right or Left extremity and with M or F for the male or female sex respectively. These were dissected as per the standard methods to expose the origin, insertion and the nerve supply of the different heads of the biceps brachii. Any additional head was specifically looked for.

Results

The supernumerary heads of the biceps brachii were found in three out of the 126 limbs. The incidence of the variant was merely 2.3%, which was relatively less in comparison to other populations. All the limbs belonged to the left side and the male sex. In all, the supernumerary head originated from the area between the insertion of the coracobrachialis and the origin of the brachialis. However, in one, it originated by two parts, one which was tendinous and attached to the bone and the other which was musculotendinous and which continued with the coracobrachialis (Table/Fig 1). In the other two, the musculotendinous origin of the supernumerary head was from the bone only (Table/Fig 2)(Table/Fig 3). The insertion was seen in the main muscle belly in two limbs (Table/Fig 1),(Table/Fig 3), whereas one had its insertion into the bicipital aponeurosis (Table/Fig 4). The average length of the third head was found to be 12.9 cm. It was a twig from the musculocutaneous nerve which supplied the additional head in all the three limbs and the arterial supply was from a branch of the brachial artery, thus suggesting that the third head was a muscle of the anterior compartment of the arm. The remaining 123 limbs showed the normal origin, insertion and the nerve supply of the biceps brachii.

Discussion

The biceps brachii originates by two heads, the long head from the supraglenoid tubercle and the short one from the coracoid process of the scapula. However, one of the variations of the biceps brachii which has made this muscle one of the most variable muscle in terms of the number and morphology of its heads, is a multiheaded biceps. It was encountered in three limbs (2.3%) in the present study. Various authors (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10),(11),(12),(13),(14),(15),(16),(17), have reported the incidence of the accessory heads of the biceps brachii to be between 0.18% to 21.5% in different populations (Table/Fig 5). As far as the side preference for the third head of the biceps is concerned, Sweiter and Carmichael (2) emphasized that the incidence of such heads is more on the right side, thus reflecting the fact that there were more right handed than left handed people and that the muscle fibres developed with use. However, contrary to it, in the present study, all the three cases of the third head were found in the left upper limbs. This can be attributed to our relatively small sample size in comparison to those of the other studies which have been mentioned above. Also, Asvat et al (9) encountered the third head of the biceps brachii more frequently in males, which corroborated the findings of the present study. The observed origin of the third head of the biceps brachii did not differ from that in the previously reported cases i.e. from the antero-medial surface of the humerus, near the insertion of the coracobrachialis and closely related to the medial intermuscular septum [1, 9]. The average length of the third head in the present study was 12.9 cm, which was virtually same as that which was described by Kosugi et al (8) in their study i.e. 13 cm. In two limbs in our study, its insertion was into the belly of the muscle. However, in the third limb, it was inserted into the bicipital aponeurosis, which is said to be a very rare finding by El-Naggar and Zahir (18). The accessory heads in all the three limbs of the present study were supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve i.e. same as the one which supplied the biceps brachii muscle. This observation was in agreement with all the previous reports [1, 8, 9]. Phylogenetically, the variations of the biceps brachii muscle were explained as a remnant of a “tuberculoseptale” head, that together with the short and long heads, is present in hylobates, but is a product of regression in humans and anthropoids (19). Sonntag (20) described the third head of the biceps brachii as a remnant of the long head of the coracobrachialis, an ancestral hominoid condition, particularly in those cases where the third head arose from the insertional area of the coracobrachialis, as has been the case in the present study. The presence of a third head of the biceps brachii muscle has its functional and clinical implications. From a functional viewpoint, the humeral origin of the third head of the biceps brachii muscle may contribute to the pronation of the forearm, irrespective of the position of the shoulder joint (5). Moreover, if the supernumerary heads are relatively large, they may provide additional strength to the biceps tendon. The clinical significance of the third head is its association with the unusual bone displacement which comes subsequent to fracture (2). Moreover, the supernumerary heads may confuse a surgeon during shoulder operations and such variations, if unilateral, can be a cause of asymmetry between the two arms and hence, can be confused with pathological conditions such as tumours (3).

Conclusion

The accessory heads of the biceps brachii are important to surgeons who perform procedures on the arm and although the variation of this type is of interest to anatomists, clinicians too should be aware of them.

Key Message

The supernumerary heads of the biceps brachii - a common variation with variable incidence in different population groups.
This study reports the low incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in the north Indian population.

References

1.
Nakatani T, Tanaka S, Mizukami S. Bilateral four-headed biceps brachii muscles: The median nerve and the brachial artery passing through a tunnel which is formed by a muscle slip from the accessory head. Clin. Anat. 1998; 11: 209-12.
2.
Sweiter MG, Carmichael SW. Bilateral three headed biceps brachii muscles. Anat. Anz. 1980; 148: 346-49.
3.
Sargon MF, Tuncali D, Celik HH. An unusual origin for the accessory head of the biceps brachii muscle. Clin. Anat. 1996; 9: 160-62.
4.
Greig HW, Anson BJ, Budinger JM. Variations in the form and attachments of the biceps brachii muscle. Quart. Bull. Northwestern Univ. Med. School 1952; 26: 241-44.
5.
Bergman RA, Thompson SA, Afifi AK. Catalogue of Human Variation, Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich, 1984; 27-30.
6.
Khaledpour VC. Uber Anomalien des M. biceps brachii. Anat. Anz. 1985; 159: 79-85.
7.
Higashi N, Sone C. A study on the accessory head of the biceps brachii in man. Acta. Anat. Nippon. 1988; 63: 78-88.
8.
Kosugi K, Shibata S, Yamashita H. The supernumerary head of the biceps brachii and the branching pattern of the musculocutaneous nerve in Japanese. Surg. Radiol. Anat. 1992; 14: 175-85.
9.
Asvat R, Candler P, Sarmiento EE. The high incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in south African populations. J. Anat. 1993; 182: 101-04.
10.
Williams PL, Warwick R, Dyson M, Bannister LH. Myology. In: Gray’s Anatomy, 37th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, Great Britain, 1989; 632.
11.
Neto HS, Camilli JA, Andrade JC, Filho JM, Marques MJ. On the incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in Brazilian whites and blacks. Ann. Anat. 1998; 180: 69-71.
12.
Kopuz C, Sancak B, Ozbenli S. On the incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in Turkish neonates and adults. Kaibogaku Zasshi 1999; 74(3): 301-05.
13.
Rincon F, Rodriquez IZ, Sanchez A. The anatomic characteristics of the third head of the biceps brachii in the Colombian population. Rev. Chil. Anat. 2002; 20(2): 197-200.
14.
Ravindranath G, Jayasree N, Rajasree TK, Rao NR. The three headed biceps brachii – a case report. J. Anat. Soc. India. 2005; 54(1): 70.
15.
Rai R, Ranade AV, Prabhu LV, Pai MM, Prakash. The third head of the biceps brachii in the Indian population. Singapore Med. J. 2007; 48(10): 929.
16.
Kumar H, Das S, Rath G. An anatomical insight into the third head of the biceps brachii muscle. Bratisl. Lek. Listy. 2008; 109(2): 76-8.
17.
Poudel PP, Bhattarai C. A study on the supernumerary heads of the biceps brachii muscle in the Nepalese population. Nepal Med. Coll. J. 2009; 11(2): 96-9.
18.
El Naggar MM, Zahir FI. Two bellies of the coracobrachialis muscle associated with a third head of the biceps brachii muscle. Clin. Anat. 2001; 14: 379-82.
19.
de Burlet HM, Correlje J. Uber Variationen des menschlichen Musculus biceps brachii. Gegenbaur’s Morphol. Jahrb. 1919; 50: 403-16.
20.
Sonntag CF. On the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the chimpanzee. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1923; 22: 323-363. Cited by El-Naggar MM, Zahir FI. Two bellies of the coracobrachialis muscle associated with a third head of the biceps brachii muscle. Clin. Anat. 2001; 14: 379-82.

DOI and Others

JCDR/2011/1674

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com