Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 70484

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesTable and FiguresDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1256 - 1259 Full Version

Student's Perception About Integrated Teaching In An Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI:
Kalpana Kumari M. K., Vijaya V. Mysorekar, Seema Raja.

Associate Professor, Pathology M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore Senior Professor, Pathology M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore Associate Professor, Anatomy M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore

Correspondence Address :
Kalpana Kumari M.K
Flat 710, C-Block, Sterling Residency, Dollars Colony,
Bangalore 560094, Karnataka, India
Email : Kalpank@Gmail.Com


The: objective of this study was to analyze the results of a survey on students regarding the integration of their institution’s health science curriculum.

Methods: One hundred and twenty five (125) students of the 5th term of the undergraduate medical course were given a questionnaire on the integration sessions. The questionnaire with a five point Likert scale, with a minimum of one and a maximum of five rating, was administered in October 2009. The data from the questionnaire was compiled and analyzed by using the SPSS version 16.

Results: One hundred and twenty two students out of the one hundred and twenty five answered the questionnaire 122/125 (97.6%). The reliability of the scale was 0.50 (Cronbachs alpha -0.5). 91.8% students agreed that integrated teaching helped in the appreciation and application of the basic science knowledge to health and disease. 82% agreed that integrated teaching improved the performance in clinics and university examinations. The responses were equally distributed in favour of traditional teaching (36%) and integrated teaching (30.3%), while 33.6% responses were of indecisisive. 51.7% of the students preferred the horizontal to vertical integrated teaching. Many positive aspects were listed by the students, such as “integrated teaching improves the understanding of the topics” and a few negative remarks such as “lengthy” were mentioned. The students suggested mind mapping, concept maps and small group discussions to improve the interaction.

Conclusion: The students recognized that integrating the medical subjects was useful and of interest to them, and that they should be continued.


Integrated teaching, vertical integration, horizontal integrations

There is a famous saying that, ‘Knowledge that is learnt in isolation is rapidly forgotten’. The dictionary meaning of integration is “to make entire”. Integration is defined as the organization of teaching matter to interrelate or unify the subjects which are frequently taught in separate academic courses or departments(1).

The medical colleges in India have been following a traditional curriculum which was characterized by a discipline wise model “with a high degree of compartmentalization into the subject of basic sciences and the para clinical and the clinical branches”. Several areas of redundancy, repetition and overlapping, along with the observation of a gap between the qualitative and quantitative advancement in medical education and achievements in the field of health care prompted the Medical Council of India to adopt a need based curriculum for undergraduate medical education in India. Regulation on undergraduate medical education, 1997” recommends a teaching approach which is characterized by maximal efforts to encourage integrated teaching between the traditional subject areas by using a problem based learning approach and to de-emphasize the compartmentalization of the disciplines, so as to achieve both the horizontal and vertical integration in the different phases(2).

Integrated teaching was introduced in the M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, in year 2004-2005. The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of the students. The students were queried regarding their attitudes towards integration, in order to expose the barriers to integration and to identify a potential new mechanism for facilitating the implementation of the integrated curricula.

Material and Methods

Framing a time table- A curriculum committee was formed by the heads of the paraclinical departments, namely pathology, microbiology, forensic medicine and pharmacology. A series of meetings were held, wherein particular topics of interest as per the curriculum were selected, such as tuberculosis, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarction. The departmental heads then assigned the topic to their faculty for preparation. The staff who were assigned from various departments for a particular topic, had a meeting and formulated the learning objectives and various teaching learning methodologies to ensure an active participation from the students and also to improve their analytical and clinical reasoning skills. The teaching learning methods which were incorporated were case simulated interactive lectures. This approach which was employed was large group lectures with a patient problem which was accompanied by questions. This ensured an active participation from the students and improved their reasoning ability.

Student feedback –After the completion of the module, the feedback was collected on the last day by using a questionnaire. The questions were framed, keeping in mind the utility of the integration, the understanding, appreciation and the application of the para clinical knowledge to the health and disease questionnaire. It consistsed of a five point Likert scale and open ended questions about the positive and negative aspects and the student’s suggestions to improve the integrated teaching. It was administered in October 2009.


Overall response rate was 97.6% (122/125). The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.50. SPSS II for windows was used for the analysis of the data results. The average student ratings across the items varied between 2.9 to 4.27. (Table/Fig 1) 54.1% (66/122) of the students agreed and 37.7% (45/122) students strongly agreed that it helps in the appreciation and application of the basic science knowledge to health and disease.

49/122 (40.2%) agreed and 50/122 (41.8%) agreed that it improves the performance in the clinics and the university examinations. The responses were equally distributed in favour of traditional teaching 43/122 (36%) and integrated teaching 37/122(30.3%), while 41/122(33.6%) responses were of indecision (Table/Fig 2). The students felt that the topics which were discussed during the integrated sessions were relevant and that the discussions were satisfactory. When asked about their opinion on whether there was adequate interaction between the students and the faculty during the integrated seminars, 77.9% (95/122) of the students agreed that there was an interraction.

The students felt that a positive aspect of integrated teaching was that it enhanced the student’s understanding of the diseases and helped them to correlate the para clinical and the clinical subjects. (Table/Fig 3)

The negative aspects which were stated, were that the sessions were lengthy and time consuming and that this cut down the time for the self study.(Table/Fig 4)

The alternate methods of teaching which were suggested by the students included group discussions, seminars and concept maps for better learning. (Table/Fig 5)

The students suggested that integrated teaching should be conducted more often, by including more topics. The students were enthusiastic about the idea of extending the integrated teaching to all the important topics. (Table/Fig 6)


Medical education is changing rapidly, with more than half of the American schools being engaged in curricular reforms. Many of these modifications focus on implementing horizontal or vertical curricular integration. Horizontal integration blends either the related basic science disciplines in order to enhance the student’s understanding of the body systems, or the related clinical science disciplines through interdisciplinary clerkships(3).

In the present study, integrated teaching was perceived to be useful by a majority of the students with regards to an improvement in the appreciation and application of basic science knowledge. A similar finding was noted by Vyas et al. (4) Our students felt that their exposure to a case based discussion improved their performance in the clinics and university exams. Other studies have documented this observation(4).

In general, the students used positive statements to respond to open ended questions which solicited their opinions and suggestions about integrated teaching. The student’s suggestions on mind mapping and concept maps and that more integrated teaching classes to be the taken regularly, will be incorporated in the subsequent integrated teaching sessions. These findings were noted in a study by Musal etal(5).

For an integrated curriculum to succeed, these different perspectives from students as well as the faculty should be given a voice, asmedical schools envision, plan and embark upon a redesign of their undergraduate education curricula(6).

In a similar study which was done by Grkovic (7), the author has highlighted the efforts which were made to expose the medical students to the real research environment and the academic way of thinking, in order to create health professionals with an ongoing interest in medical research.

Vidic et al (8) have suggested that it is imperative for the success of the new curriculum, however, that certain criteria should be satisfied: To 1. Reorganize the basic science departments to determine the course ownership.2. Establish a reward system for the teaching faculty.3.Establish course objectives.

In a study which was done by Soudarssannae and Sahai (9) the integrated teaching of epidemiology and the incorporation of the presentation and discussion of the actual studies which were conducted in the local population with the involvement of the clinical departments, was a novel attempt in the lecture discussions of the subject. This method was well appreciated by their students.

Schmidt (10) reported that in his experience, integration was most successful when it occurred naturally as a part of the teaching and learning process, rather than that of the mandated course structure.

Kingsley et al (11) stated that curricular integration was one method for improving the teaching and learning of the complicated andinterrelated concepts, thus providing an opportunity to incorporate the research training and objectives into traditionally separate didactic courses.


This study showed that it was possible to adopt integrated teaching under a conventional curriculum in spite of all the challenges. Thus, we can emphasize that considering the volume load which the students are subjected to, integrated teaching can definitely save their time and energy, and give them better insight into the subject. Our collective experience convinced us that designing an integrated curriculum was well worth the considerable efforts which were involved and that it would support the integration of the content into the minds of the learners. Implementing a well integrated curriculum requires strong leadership and overcoming departmental barriers.

Our experiences showed that it was difficult to formulate modules for integrated teaching and that the process required a thorough planning by faculty who were committed, who were genuinely interested in conducting these sessions. The faculty should be successful in creating sufficient interest among the students, so as to ensure maximum student participation.


Joglekar S, Bhuryan PS, Kishore S. Integrated teaching – Our experience. J Postgrad Med 1994; 40:231-2.
Ghosh S, Pandya HV. Implementation of an integrated learning program in neuroscience during the first year of the traditional medicalcourse; Perception of the students and faculty. BMC Medical education 2008; 8:44.
Jennifer K, Brueckner, Gould DJ. The health science faculty member’s perceptions on curricular integration: Insight and obstacles. The Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators 2006; 16: 31-4.
Vyas R, Jacob M, Faith M, Isacc B, Rabi S, Satish Kumar S , Selvakumar D, Ganesh.A. An effective, integrated learning programme in the first year of the medical course. The National Medical Journal of India. 2008; 21:1-6.
Musal B, Taskiran C, Kelson. A. Opinions of tutors and students about the effectiveness of PBL in the Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine. Med Educ Online 2003; 8:16.
Muller J H, Jain.S, Loeser H, Irby D.M. Lessons which have to be learned about integrating a medical school curriculum and the perceptions of the students, the faculty and the curriculum leaders. Med. Educ 2008;42: 778-85
Vernon DTA, Michael CH, Faculty attitudes and opinions about problem based learning. Academic medicine.1996:71:1233-8.
Grkovic I. Transition of the medical curriculum from classical to integrated: A problem based approach and the Australian way of keeping academics in medicine. Croat Med J 2005; 46; 16-20
Vidic B, Weitlauf HM. The horizontal and vertical integration of academicdisciplines in the medical school curriculum. Clin Anat 15:233-5
Soudarssanane MB, Sahai A. Innovative integrated teaching of epidemiology Indian Journal of Community Medicine.2007;32:1- 10) Schmidt H. Integrating the teaching of basic sciences, clinical sciences and biopsychosocial issues .Chapter 4. Academic Medicine 73: S-24- 31
Kingsley K, Malley S O, Stewart T, Howard M K. Research Enrichment: evaluation of the structured research in the curriculum for dental medicine students as a part of the vertical and horizontal integration of biomedical teaching and discovery.BMC Med Edu 2008;8:91472- 6920.

DOI and Others


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)