Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Letter to Editor
Year : 2007 | Month : October | Volume : 1 | Issue : 5 | Page : 440 - 443

Drug Utilisation Study in Geriatric Type 2 Diabetic Patients


*Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India.**Professor, Dept of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, India.***Professor and HOD Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India.

Correspondence Address :
Rajeshwari S, Lecturer, Dept of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Light house Hill Road, Managalore-575001, Karnataka. E-mail:

Drug utilisation has been defined as the marketing, distribution, prescription, and use of drugs in a society, with emphasis on the resulting medical and social consequences (1). Drug utilisation studies create a sound sociomedical and health economic basis for healthcare decision-making (2). Drug utilisation review (DUR) is the “evaluation of drug use in a given health care environment against predetermined criteria and standards to assess the appropriateness of drug therapy” (3). Retrospective DUR involves evaluation of therapy and intervention when necessary, while the patient is receiving treatment.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic conditions in the elderly, and its prevalence will increase as the population ages (4). In India, 20% of the elderly population has T2DM (5). The goals of treatment are the same for elderly and younger patients; however, treatment decisions are influenced by age, life expectancy, comorbid conditions, and severity of the vascular complications.Hypertension is an extremely common comorbid condition in diabetes, affecting ~20–60% of patients with diabetes, depending on obesity, ethnicity, and age. Hypertension substantially increases the risk of both macrovascular and microvascular diseases, retinopathy, nephropathy and possibly neuropathy (6). Owing to the presence of comorbid conditions, geriatric patients are usually on more than one drug (polymedication). Hence, this vulnerable population needs frequent monitoring and special care.

This study was undertaken to evaluate the drug utilisation pattern in geriatric T2DM patients.

Material and Methods

A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted for a period of 6 months (July 2004 to January 2005) in an out-patient department of a tertiary hospital in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. The medical records of 64 geriatric (age >60 years) (7) type 2 diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic were reviewed. Drug prescribed mainly for DM and hypertension were included along with other drugs used for their comorbidities. Along with drug regimens, demographic data, age, and gender were recorded. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics.


Prescriptions of total 64 geriatric T2DM patients were collected, out of which 42 (65.62%) were males and 22 (34.37%) females. Antidiabetic agents prescribed were second-generation sulphonylureas, metformin, thiazolidinediones, and insulin.

Out of the total 64 patients, 46 (71.87%) were on polytherapy and 18 (28.13%) were on monotherapy for DM.

Out of 46 patients on polytherapy, 26 (40.63%) were on a two-drug combination, 18 (28.12%) on a three-drug combination, and two (3.12%) on a four-drug combinations.

Out of the total 64 patients, 48 (75%) were on a single oral antidiabetic agent (OAD) or a combination of OADs, 13 patients (20.31%) were on a combination of insulin and OAD, and remaining three patients (4.69%) were only on insulin therapy.

(Table/Fig 1) shows the pattern of antidiabetic drug utilisation in DM. Of the OAD, metformin (78.12%) was the most frequently prescribed, followed by glimepiride (32.81%) and glibenclamide (31.25%). Insulin was prescribed for 25% of the patients (alone or in combination).

Out of the total 64 geriatric diabetic patients, 51 patients (79.68%) were on an antihypertensive therapy, and 47.045% were treated with a single antihypertensive drug and 52.94% with antihypertensive drug combinations. Among those who were treated with drug combinations, 31.37% received two drugs, 17.65% received three drugs, and 3.92% received a regimen of four drugs. The most frequently prescribed five antihypertensives were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) – 54.09%, beta-blockers – 47.05%, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) – 37.25%, diuretics – 35.29%, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) – 19.6%.

Among the ACEIs, enalapril (29.41%) was most frequently prescribed, followed by ramipril (23.53%) and lisinopril (1.96%). Of the beta-blockers, atenolol (23.53%) followed by metaprolol (19.60%) and carvedilol (3.92%) were the frequently prescribed antihypertensives.

Evidence of cardiovascular complications was found in 15 patients, neuropathy was present in 17 patients, and 13 patients had hyperlipidaemia. Drugs used for cardiovascular complications were nitrates (23.43%) and aspirin (42.18%) and for neuropathy was amitriptyline (26.56%); statins (20.31%) were used as hypolipidaemic agent.


Prescription by a clinician may be taken as a reflection of his/her attitude to the disease and role of the drug in treatment. It also provides insight into the nature of healthcare delivery system (8).

In elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment may be initiated with monotherapy, followed by early intervention with a combination of oral agents, including a sulphonylurea as a foundation insulin secretagogue in addition to a supplemental insulin sensitiser (9). Several studies showed that a combination of sulphonylurea with metformin has been most widely used (10). The present study also showed that a combination of sulphonylurea and metformin was most frequently prescribed (75%). Metformin does not promote weight gain and has beneficial effects on several cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, metformin is widely regarded as the first drug of choice for most patients with T2DM (11). Our study also supports the same; 78.12% received metformin alone and/or in combination with other OAD and/or insulin. At present, glibenclamide and glimepiride are the second-generation sulphonylureas most widely used in the United States (12). In this study among the second-generation sulphonylureas, glimepiride and glibenclamide were most commonly prescribed. Adding a second agent is usually better than increasing the dosage of an agent that has already been given in a nearly maximum dosage. In some patients, three drug combinations may be useful. In this study, 40.63% received two drugs, and 15.62% received three-drug combination of only OAD. In most patients, the failure of three oral agents used together calls for the use of insulin alone or in addition to an oral agent. Numerous studies have shown that a combination of insulin and sulphonylurea is more effective than insulin alone in the treatment of patients with T2DM after secondary failure to oral drugs, leading to better glucose profiles and/or decreased insulin needs (13). The present study shows that only 4.68% received insulin alone and 20.31% received insulin in combination with OAD.

The benefits of treating hypertension in elderly diabetic patients are to achieve reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There are numerous studies documenting the effectiveness of ACEIs in retarding the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy and macro- and microvascular complications. Hence, choosing an ACEI as the first-line agent in most patients with diabetes is reasonable (14). The present study also showed that ACEIs were the frequently prescribed antihypertensive agents (54.90%). The recent UK prospective diabetes study group report indicated that more than 25% of hypertensive patients with diabetes require three or more antihypertensive drugs (15). In our study, 31.37% received two drugs and 17.65% received three-drug combinations.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of death in elderly diabetics (16). In our study, 23.43% showed presence of cardiovascular complications other than hypertension and drugs used were nitrates (23.43%) and aspirin (42.18%).

Neuropathy is the most common symptomatic chronic complication in diabetic patient and accounts for substantial morbidity in elderly diabetic population. Chronic, painful diabetic neuropathy is difficult to treat but may respond to tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline) and other agents (phenytoin) (17). Current study shows that 27.86% of diabetics received amitriptyline for neuropathy.

To conclude, T2DM is a progressive and complex disorder that is difficult to treat effectively in the long term. The treatment pattern observed in this study corroborates with the accepted pattern of treatment for DM wi


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Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .