Administration of Spinal Anaesthesia with Modified Paramedian Technique in a Patient with Kyphoscoliosis: A Case Report
Dr. Yatharth Bhardwaj,
Resident, Department of Anaesthesia, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
Kyphoscoliosis is a condition that affects the spine, with adolescents accounting for 75-90% of cases of idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis patients may experience difficulties when receiving anaesthesia during surgical procedures. There is often multisystem involvement, including the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems. Patients who have scoliosis often have difficulties with their airways (affected airway morphology, difficult intubation with laryngoscopy), respiratory systems (hypoxia, alveolar vascular constriction, pulmonary hypertension), and cardiac systems (cardiomyopathy, right ventricular enlargement, but also cor pulmonale). Scoliosis can bring on a restrictive pulmonary disease, which can lead to a decrease in both total lung volume and functional residual capacity, as well as an increase in breathing rate. Owing to the deformities of the vertebra, subarachnoid blocks in patients with kyphoscoliosis generally constitute a special hurdle for the anaesthesiologist. Midline and paramedian approach for spinal anaesthesia has been practiced since long but a novel approach as modified paramedian technique allows the entry of the needle from far away from midline hence reducing the number of punctures taken and lesser complications. Respiratory and airway concerns are customarily addressed in kyphoscoliotic patients. Authors present a unique case of 35-year-old male with severe kyphoscoliosis with neurofibromatosis posted for right above knee amputation by spinal anaesthesia using modified paramedian technique. Authors planned for subarachnoid block for this patient with modified paramedian approach which resulted in right-sided dense block with patchy sensory and motor block on left-side. For a successful operation, scoliosis patients require a thorough preoperative evaluation, a well-equipped set-up, and a teamwork.