Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Profile of COVID-19 Patients during the Second Wave with Special Reference to Vaccination Status
Dr. Saswat Subhankar,
Department of Respiratory Medicine, KIMS, Campus-5, Patia-751024, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has been creating havoc worldwide since the first report in December, 2019. Vaccination against the disease was thought to bring respite, reducing the severity of disease, morbidity and mortality. However, considering the fact that no vaccine is fully efficient, people may get COVID-19 even after full vaccination.
Aim: To determine the clinical, laboratory, radiological features of COVID-19 including the outcome and compare these between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients.
Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Odisha, India, from May 2021 to June 2021. Detailed history including symptoms and vaccination status, laboratory parameters, and radiological investigations were collected from 200 patients. The cases were classified as mild, moderate and severe as per the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) guidelines. All the patients were followed till the end of hospital stay. The results were expressed as the mean±standard deviation and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables, and unpaired t-test was used to compare two discrete variables. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Majority of the patients were unvaccinated (65%) and belonged to the age group of 39-59 years (58.5%). Among the non vaccinated patients, 32.3% had moderate disease, while 35.4% had severe disease. In the vaccinated group, 51.4% had moderate disease, whereas only 28.6% patients developed severe disease. Increased Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), D-dimer levels, and radiological evidence of pneumonia in chest radiology were witnessed in both groups. Inflammatory markers between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups did not show any statistical significance (p>0.05). A total of 12 (6%) patients died, out of which five were vaccinated (p=0.6).
Conclusion: Vaccination is found to be protective in terms of disease severity and mortality. Vaccination of all individuals is recommended to curb the wrath of the virus.