Flat Foot in 14-16 Years Old Adolescents and its Association with BMI and Sports Activity
Dr Chamanahalli Appaji Ashwini,
1465, 5th mainm 2nd Stage, 1st Block, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru-560010, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: The main arches of foot are the medial longitudinal, the lateral longitudinal and the transverse arches. The term pes planus denotes an excessively flat foot. There is no precise degree of flatness that defines pes planus and it may be either physiological or pathological.
Aim: To identify flat foot in age group of 14-16 years by clinical examination, classify them into flexible and rigid and to study the association of Body Mass Index (BMI) and sports activity with flat foot.
Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 323 adolescents in the age group of 14-16 years chosen from five high schools in and around MS Ramaiah Medical College Campus, Bangalore, Karanataka, India. Both foot were clinically examined separately, with foot raised off the ground (non weight bearing) and standing on the same foot with the other foot raised (weight bearing position). Presence of arch in non weight bearing and absence in weight bearing was classified as flexible flat foot. Absence in both positions was classified rigid flat foot. The BMI was calculated and history of sports activity was recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.
Results: Out of the total participants, 106 (32.8%) participants had flat foot. Among them, 89.62% were flexible and 10.37% rigid flat foot. Bilateral Pes Planus was common when compared to unilateral, being more prevalent among the male students. Chi square test gave a p-value of 0.521 for flexible and 0.176 for rigid flat foot in association with BMI.
Conclusion: Flat foot in the age group of 14-16 years is predominantly flexible. Higher prevalence of flexible and rigid flat foot was observed among males. No association between BMI or sports activity with Pes Planus was noted.