Clinical Manifestations and Associated Complications of Scrub Typhus in Odisha, India OC14-OC18
Dr. Aditya Dhanawat,
N/4-16, IRC Village, Infront of IRC Village Post Office, Bhubaneswar-751015, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging illness in the South-East Asia and other parts of the world caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is a mite-borne bacterium belonging to the Rickettsiaceae family. It has varied clinical manifestations and affects multiple organ systems. In Asia, about 1 million new cases are identified annually.
Aim: The aim was to conduct a retrospective study to observe the clinical profile and complications of scrub typhus in SouthEastern India.
Materials and Methods: Clinical data of 240 patients who were 18 years of age or above, admitted in the Department of Internal Medicine and diagnosed with scrub typhus by means of IgM Enzyme-linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was collected. Demographic profile, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory parameters, co-infections and complications were reviewed. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test.
Results: Majority of the patients were males, between the age of 18-29 years and lived in rural areas. Forty-three (17.9%) patients were admitted in the ICU and the remaining in wards. Sixty-nine (28.8%) patients had consolidation and 11 (4.6%) had Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Twenty-one (8.8%) patients had jaundice and 76 (31.7) had hepatomegaly. Twenty-one (8.8%) patients had meningo-encephalitis and 18 (7.5%) had acute kidney injury. Twelve (5%) patients had coinfection with dengue and 8 (3.3%) had malaria.
Conclusion: This study shows wide and varied presentation of scrub typhus infection along with the course of the disease and response to the treatment. The diagnostic clues such as fever, eschar, rashes, lymphadenopathy should be kept in mind by a primary care physician as early recognition and treatment can prevent its dangerous complications and reduce the mortality due to the disease. Occurrence of co-infections should also be kept in mind for better management of the patient.