Quality Index of Five Cytochemical Stains used for Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Breast and Lymph Node Lesions: A Comparative Study EC06-EC11
Dr. Kusuma Venkatesh,
No. 28, Maruthi Seva Nagar, Banasawadi Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is an established diagnostic tool aiming at an early diagnosis of mass lesions which in turn aids in planning further management of the patients. The need for minimal turnaround time with good quality of cell morphology has encouraged the development of different staining techniques. Quality Index (QI) of cytochemical stains is evaluated with a scoring system based on morphological features.
Aim: To find rapid staining methods which were economical without compromising on the quality of FNAC smears. QI of five stains namely Papanicolaou stain (Pap), Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG), Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou (MUFP) and Rapid Economic Acetic acid Pap stain (REAP) were studied and compared.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, from August 2011 to July 2013. FNAC of 80 mass lesions including 44 of breast lesions and 36 lymph nodes were included in this study. A minimum of five smears were made in each case and stained with Pap, H&E, MGG, MUFP and REAP. The QI of stain was assessed by the scores given for background of the smear, overall staining, and preservation of cell morphology, nuclear characteristics, cytoplasmic details and air drying artifacts. Statistical analysis of the data was done using chi-square test and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0.
Results: Pap stain showed maximum QI score followed by H&E, REAP, MGG and MUFP in case of breast lesions. In cases of lymph node highest QI was again with Pap followed by H&E, REAP, MUFP and MGG. Good cytomorphology with lesser expenditure and turnaround time was obtained by REAP and MUFP stains.
Conclusion: Pap stain is still the best for cell morphology whereas MUFP and REAP are good, economical and with lesser turnaround time and can be used in routine cytopathology.