Variations in the Axillary Artery Branching Pattern AD01-AD04
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Variations in axillary artery branching pattern can lead to iatrogenic injuries during invasive procedures. Knowledge of the same is critical to prevent such events. Multiple bilateral variations were observed in the branching pattern of axillary artery. These variations were noted in a female cadaver, during routine undergraduate dissection in September 2019 in Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. On the left side, an anomalous branch running with the medial pectoral nerve was found. A common stem arising from the 2nd part of left axillary artery divided to give the lateral thoracic artery, the subscapular artery and an alar artery. Another alar branch arose from the left subscapular artery before it bifurcated into thoraco-dorsal and circumflex scapular arteries. The right axillary artery gave an aberrant branch proximal to the lateral thoracic artery. A common trunk arising from the 2nd part of right axillary branched out to give the posterior circumflex humeral artery, the subscapular artery and an alar artery. The brachial artery divided 13.5 cm proximal to the intercondylar line of humerus on the left and 14.4 cm on the right side. On both sides, the ulnar artery arose proximally and the radial and common inter-osseous arteries continued as a common trunk and divided distally. This case study reports multiple bilateral axillary artery anomalies and complements to the existing knowledge of vascular anomalies. Comprehensive knowledge of these variations is essential from anatomical, radiological and surgical point of view. During surgeries involving axillary and pectoral group of lymph nodes, such variations should be kept in mind.