Long Term Clinicoepidemiological Study of Leprosy: A Retrospective Study from Bangladesh WC01-WC04
5c Amanat Homes, 95 Sadarghat, Chattogram 4000, Bangladesh.
Introduction: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection but least pathogenic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the peripheral nerves, skin, upper respiratory tract mucosa, eyes, testes and certain other tissues. Prevalence Rate (PR) of leprosy should be determined to achieve WHO elimination target.
Aim: To study the clinic-epidemiological trend of leprosy in 5 years in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 161 leprosy patients of both sexes, between 8 to 65 years of age, registered at the leprosy clinic of a tertiary care Hospital (CMCH), from January 2014 to December 2018. The number of skin lesions, neuritis, lepra reaction episode (Type I and Type II), deformity status (Grade-1 and Grade-2) in each patient was recorded.
Results: The majority of patients, 67 (41.61%), were between 26-40 years of age with a male preponderance. A total of 11 (6.83%) were children. Slit skin smear was positive in 67 (41.61%) patients, 127 (78.88%) patients were classified as Multibacillary (MB) and 34 (21.12%) as Paucibacillary (PB) disease by National Leprosy Elimination Program (NLEP) criteria. Lepra reaction was observed in 87 (54.03%), Type I in 48 (29.81%) cases and Type II in 39 (24.22%), and Neuritis 28 (17.39%). Deformities occurred in 54 (33.54%) patients, Grade I deformity in 31 (19.25%) cases and Grade II in 23 (14.29%). Despite the statistical elimination of leprosy at national level, leprosy cases continue to be present in significant numbers.
Conclusion: This study revealed that among the multibacillary diseased (127), the complications of lepra reactions and deformities remain higher. Early detection, treatment with MDT (Multi Drug Therapy) and contact tracing may be important in reducing the burden of leprosy in the community.