Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Serum Electrolytes and Renal Function Indices in Patients BC13-BC16
Dr. Godwill Azeh Engwa,
Lecturer, Department of Chemical Sciences, Godfrey Okoye University, P.M.B 01014, Thinkers Corner, Enugu, Nigeria.
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes, a disease condition characterised by hyperglycaemia can damage the kidney, an organ which regulates water and electrolytes. Also, high blood sugar can increase plasma osmolarity thereby, drifting water movement from the intracellular to the extracellular spaces and alter the distribution of electrolytes in the body. However, little is known on the relationship between serum electrolytes, renal function and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D).
Aim: This study was aimed to assess the serum electrolyte level of diabetic patients in order to evaluate the relationship of these electrolytes with renal dysfunction indices as well as other diabetes risk factors in T2D patients.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 72 T2D and 75 Non-Diabetic (ND) outpatients was conducted at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) Enugu, Nigeria. The patientsâ€™ demographic and anthropometric data was obtained and the serum electrolytes; potassium (K+), sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions along with creatinine and urea as renal function indices were measured.
Results: Serum K+ was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in T2D patients while Na+, Cl-, creatinine and urea were insignificantly higher in T2D patients compared to the ND patients. Serum K+ disorder were significantly greater (p<0.05) in T2D patients as 8.8% of T2D patients were hyperkalaemic compared to ND patients (2.7%). Creatinine level positively correlated with K+ (p = 0.004) while age, Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) correlated with serum electrolytes.
Conclusion: T2D was found to promote electrolyte imbalance particularly potassium ion derangement and may affect renal function. Risk factors of T2D such as old age and high blood pressure may also promote electrolyte disorders.