Gender Bias in Autism Spectrum Disorders- A Review KE01-KE07
Dr. Shilpa S Chapadgaonkar,
Associate Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology,
Manav Rachna International University, Sector 43, Surajkund Road, Faridabad-121004, Haryana, India.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have been one of the baffling mysteries of human mind. It is known that ASDs have a significant male predominance. Moreover, the differences between male and female brain that have been explored by many researchers point towards the role of hormones specifically steroid sex hormones during the developmental stages in functional development and coordination in brain structures. There is an abundance of receptors for steroid hormones such as testosterone, oestrogen, progesterone in brain. We have reviewed several research papers that indicate the involvement of steroid hormones acting through various pathways that affect cognitive, linguistic, social and emotional circuits which may culminate in manifestation of ASDs and the observed gender bias. These observations may also hold the key for a possible treatment or prevention of these types of disorders.