Therapeutic Effect of Momordica charantia on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Dr. Suchitra Kumari,
Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar -751019, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) is known to have anti-diabetic property. Animal studies have documented its hypoglycaemic and lipid lowering effect. However, clinical trials with human subjects are very few and the effective dose of Momordica charantia is not studied in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Aim: To investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (1 gm and 1.5 gm) on glycaemic profile, insulin resistance, lipid profile, oxidative stress and Body Mass Index (BMI) in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, during Apr 2017 to Feb 2018. Seventy five uncomplicated type-2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled. Group A patients were supplemented with 1 gm of Momordica charantia tablets with oral anti-diabetic agents and Group B with 1.5 gm of Momordica charantia tablets along with oral anti diabetic agents, daily for eight weeks. Group C were treated with oral anti diabetic agents only (Control group). Fasting plasma glucose, Post prandial blood sugar, HbA1C, insulin resistance, lipid profile and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were compared between baseline and eight weeks Post supplementation.
Results: Control group had reduced blood sugar levels but it was not significant. A 1 gm of Momordica charantia along with oral anti-diabetic agents had significantly reduced blood sugar, HbA1C, Total cholesterol, LDLc in group A, without improving insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress (MDA). A 1.5 gm of Momordica charantia add on treatment along with stable dose of oral anti-diabetic improved glycaemic profile along with insulin resistance (p<0.05) in type-2 diabetes patients. It reduced total cholesterol, LDLc and increased HDLc levels. It significantly decreased the MDA levels. However, Momordica charantia had no significant effect on Triglycerides and TAG/HDLc ratio in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Conclusion: Add on treatment with 1.5 gm/day of Momordica charantia is effective in glycaemic control, lowering Total cholesterol and oxidative stress. It improves HDLc and insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients.