Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy: A 14-Year Experience at a Tertiary Care Centre in India QC08-QC11
Dr. S Tahmina,
No.119, 5th Main, 1st Block, BSK 3rd Stage, 3rd Phase, Bangalore-560085, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy (EPH), although relatively infrequent in present day obstetrics, is a life-saving procedure in the event of a massive postpartum haemorrhage.
Aim: To assess incidence, risk factors, indications and complications of peripartum hysterectomies at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a 650-bedded tertiary care medical teaching hospital in Southern India. All emergency peripartum hysterectomies performed between February 2002 and December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital, were included in the study. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, antepartum, intrapartum and post-partum events, need for blood transfusion, length of stay in intensive care unit and postoperative complications were noted. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analysed using SPSS software version 22.0. For categorical variables, data was compiled as frequency and percent. For continuous variables, data was calculated as mean±SD.
Results: Among 16,473 deliveries in the study period, 12 emergency peripartum hysterectomies were undertaken, the incidence being 0.073%. Women were aged 20 to 40 years (mean 30.25 years). Majority (83%) were multiparous women. Atonic postpartum haemorrhage was the most common (58%) indication for hysterectomy. About 67% of hysterectomies performed were subtotal hysterectomies. One half of them had a previous caesarean section. Two patients had bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for ongoing haemorrhage. All patients required intensive care and blood transfusion. Two patients did not survive even after hysterectomy.
Conclusion: Atonic postpartum haemorrhage was the most common reason for performing an emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Women with previous caesarean section are at increased risk, both due to atonic and traumatic postpartum haemorrhage. Regular departmental audits are needed to formulate appropriate protocols to decrease mortality and near-miss events like EPH. Stringent protocols should be instituted for managing obstetric haemorrhage. Although EPH is life-saving, early intervention by a senior obstetrician well versed with conservative procedures may avoid morbidity associated with EPH.