Antibacterial Effects of Garlic Extracts and Ziziphora Essential Oil on Bacteria Associated with Peri-Implantitis ZC16-ZC19
Dr. Shima Ghasemi,
Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry,
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Azadi Street, Tabriz-2435-7654, Iran.
Introduction: Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process, characterized by loss of bone around implants and bleeding on probing. Colonization of bacteria in the pocket created around the implant is one of the most important aetiologic factors involved. Although antibiotics are routinely used and are effective agents against this bacterial infection, due to the side effects and drug resistance of these medications, researchers are more interested in using herbal derivatives. There are relatively limited number of studies in this respect.
Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of the extracts of Allium sativum and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study conducted at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences between March 2016 and July 2016, aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic and ziziphora essential oil were prepared and then their effects on one standard strain of P. aeruginosa and two standard strains of S. aureus and 18 clinical strains, (nine strains of P. aeruginosa and nine strains of S. aureus) which had been isolated from wound and blood cultures, were evaluated using the reference broth macro dilution method and disk diffusion technique. Data were evaluated with descriptive statistical techniques and t-test for independent groups, using SPSS 17.
Results: Aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic did not exhibit inhibitory effects on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for ziziphora essential oil against S. aureus were 0.25 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The mean diameter of growth inhibition zone for S. aureus in the ziziphora essential oil group (0.25µg/mL) and Vancomycin group (10 µg/mL) were 26.09±5.8 and 14.63±1.20 mm respectively (p<0.001). Growth inhibition zone for P. aeruginosa were observed in only one (35 mm) and three cases (12.5±3.4 mm) in the ziziphora essential oil group (0.5 µg/mL) and Nalidixic acid group (10 µg/mL) respectively.
Conclusion: The essential oil of ziziphora exhibited a favourable antibacterial effect on S. aureus; therefore, its extract can be used as an effective antimicrobial agent alone or in association with other antibiotics in the treatment of infections due to S. aureus.