Assessment of Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible in Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Non Diabetic Individuals ZC35-ZC39
Dr. Beena Varma,
Professor and Head, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Amrita School of Dentistry,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi-682041, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Bone health is a crucial concern in diabetes. There are evidences for relating diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Because of the large number of patients with diabetes, this condition cannot be neglected in the daily routine of dental clinics. Previous studies revealed that the thickness of the inferior cortex of the mandible can be used to predict occurrence of osteoporosis in patients. Apart from this, literature also supports the fact that panoramic radiomorphometric indices are significantly correlated with mandibular bone mineral density.
Aim: To measure radiomorphometric indices of mandible on panoramic radiographs of diabetics and non diabetic individuals so that diabetes induced mandibular bony changes could be assessed.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 people who were divided in to 4 groups of 25 subjects each. Group 1 consisted of healthy controls; Group 2 consisted of type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects; Group 3 consisted of type 2 diabetics on calcium supplements and Group 4 had subjects with type 1 diabetes. A panoramic radiograph was taken for all sample population. Images were saved and viewed in DICOM format. After taking DICOM printout, all indices were manually drawn and measurements were taken. Kruskal wallis test was used to compare panoramic indices between groups. Since it was significant, dunn bonferroni test was applied.
Results: MI (Mental Index), AI (Antegonial Index) and GI (Gonial Index) showed statistically significant difference between diabetics and healthy controls. PMI (Panoramic Mandibular Index) had no appreciable variation between diabetics and non diabetics.
Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of bone mineral density in type 1 as well as type 2 diabetics. Thus MI, AI and GI can be considered as a primary screening tool for better appreciation of diabetic bone mineral density.