Evaluation of Efficacy of Intravenous Iron Sucrose in Management of Adolescent Iron Deficiency Anaemia QC17-QC20
Dr. Arati Mallick,
C/O Dr. B.K. Kuanar Gayatri Vihar, Chandi Chhak, Cuttack-753001, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Worldwide, most common nutritional deficiency anaemia is iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia in adolescent girls is defined as blood haemoglobin (Hb) level <12g/dL. The highest prevalence seen in ages of 14-19 years, more than 50% girls of this age are anaemic. It affects both physical endurance and cognitive performance in adolescent. Adolescent anaemia if not corrected at proper time, will attribute to the high maternal mortality rate, higher incidence of low birth weight babies and high perinatal mortality rates.
Aim: To establish the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose and to compare with oral iron ascorbate in management of iron deficiency anaemia in adolescent girls.
Materials and Methods: It is a prospective, interventional, hospital based clinical study carried out in over 61 adolescent girls (10-19) years, having haemoglobin 8-<12 g/dL. Thirty girls were given intravenous iron sucrose and 31 girls were given oral ferrous sulphate. In intravenous group, 200-800 mg intravenous iron sucrose has been given in divided doses, 200 mg (per dose) diluted in 200 ml of normal saline on alternate day whereas in oral group, 200 mg ferrous sulphate tablet given orally, twice daily for three weeks. Data was collected after four week for haemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) estimation.
Results: A significant improvement of haemoglobin was observed with intravenous iron sucrose. The mean haemoglobin was increased from 9.9±0.94 gm/dL to 11.54±0.80 gm/dL after four weeks. Within a short span of four weeks, intravenous iron sucrose leads to a significant increase (p<0.001) in haemoglobin concentration of 1.6±0.83 g/dL compared to 0.89±0.48 g/dL increase in concentration of haemoglobin in oral iron sulphate group. Iron sucrose was very well tolerated. Only one out of 30 patients experienced headache and burning sensation at injection site. 20 (64.5%) girls in oral group complained of gastrointestinal side effects like nausea, dyspepsia and constipation compared to none in intravenous group.
Conclusion: Overall, intravenous iron sucrose therapy compared to oral iron ascorbate found to be very effective in treating mild to moderate anaemia in adolescent girls with negligible side effects and good safety profile.