Histomorphometric Analysis of Angiogenesis using CD31 Immunomarker and Mast Cell Density in Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions: A Pilot Study ZC37-ZC40
Dr. Kiran Kumar,
Associate Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, SDM college of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad-580009,
Introduction: Mast cells have been implicated in promoting angiogenesis in malignant tumors of lung, oesophagus and breast, but there are few studies on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC). Most oral squamous cell carcinomas arise from pre-existing precancerous lesions exhibiting epithelial dysplasia.
Aim: The present pilot study attempts to compare Mast Cell Density (MCD), Microvessel Density (MVD), Microvessel Area (MVA) histomorphometrically between normal buccal mucosa, severe epithelial dysplasia and OSCC and to correlate the role of mast cells and angiogenesis in tumor progression.
Material and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted on eight cases of OSCC, eight cases of severe epithelial dysplasia and five cases of normal buccal mucosa. Immunohistochemical staining with anti CDâ€“31, to demonstrate angiogenesis and toluidine blue staining for mast cells were employed. MVA, MVD and MCD were calculated using the measurement tools of the image analysis software and compared between the groups. One way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameter for multiple groups followed by Games Howell test. To assess the relationship between micro vessel density and mast cell density, Karl Pearsonâ€™s correlation was used.
Results: MCD and MVD increased with disease progression and were statistically higher in OSCC than in severe epithelial dysplasia and normal buccal mucosa (p<0.001). MVA increased from normal to severe dysplasia and decreased from dysplasia to OSCC, may be due to revascularization of tumor tissue. A positive correlation was observed between MCD and MVD in OSCC and dysplasia, though were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that mast cells may up regulate angiogenesis in OSCC. MCD and MVD may be used as indicators for disease progression.