The Feto-Maternal Outcome of Preeclampsia with Severe Features and Eclampsia in Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria QC18-QC21
Dr. Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,
Lecturer, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus.
Introduction: Preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia has remained a serious challenge in tropical obstetric practice. It is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria.
Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, the risk factors and feto-maternal outcome of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia in Abakaliki.
Materials and Methods: This was a 5-year retrospective case-control study of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Case notes of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia between January 2008 and December, 2012 were retrieved. Similarly, the case file of next parturient that did not have any medical disease was included in the study. The cases and controls were selected at the ratio of 1:1. The data assessed were information on maternal age, parity, booking status, diagnosis, mode of delivery, complications, maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Results: A total of 13,750 deliveries were recorded within the study period. The prevalence of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia were 136(0.99%) and 104(0.76%) respectively. Preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia was more common among adolescents, rural dwellers, poorly educated, unemployed, unbooked and nulliparous women. It was more associated with preterm delivery, caesarean section, low birth weight babies, maternal and perinatal mortality.
Conclusion: Preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia is common among the adolescents, unbooked, rural, and low socio-economic group of women in this study. It has also contributed to high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There is need for policy makers to formulate policies toward female education, women empowerment and provision of social amenities in rural areas. These policies may reverse the current ugly trend in this environment.