Cytogenetic Analysis for Suspected Chromosomal Abnormalities; A Five Years Experience GC01-GC05
Dr. Sunil Kumar Polipalli,
Department of Pediatrics, Genetics Division, Maulana Azad Medical College & Associated LNH Hospitals, New Delhi, India.
Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities are the results of alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes causing significant human morbidity and mortality. They are responsible for a large proportion of miscarriages, developmental delay, disorders of sexual development, congenital malformations and mental retardation.
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of different chromosomal abnormalities in North Indian patients referred for cytogenetic analysis.
Materials and Methods: Total of 859 patients ranging from newborn to 37 years of age were referred to the division of genetics, Department of Paediatrics between 2010 and 2015, with a variety of clinical disorders; Down syndrome (DS), Turnerâ€™s syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome; amenorrhea; ambiguous sex and multiple congenital malformations. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocyte culture according to standard methods.
Results: Of the 859 cases studied, 371 (43.1%) had chromosomal abnormalities. The most common autosomal abnormalities were DS 302 (81.4%) and sex chromosomal abnormalities were TS 51 (13.7%). Numerical abnormalities were accounted for 353 (41.0%) and structural abnormalities 18 (2.0%), respectively. Various other chromosomal anomalies were also reported.
Conclusion: We have reviewed the incidence and distribution of chromosomal abnormalities and found higher rate of chromosomal abnormalities 43.1% in the referred cases. Our data suggest that chromosomal analysis is important tool in the evaluation of genetic disorders and helps clinicians to provide accurate diagnosis and proper genetic counselling.