The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion ZC006-ZC009
Dr. Madu Ghanashyam Prasad,
Professor and Head, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, St. Joseph Dental College,
Duggirala, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI).
Aim: The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological markerâ€“Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints.
Materials and Methods: A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators.
Results: The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with malocclusion (p= 0.027) which further influences the caries susceptibility. Pearsonâ€™s correlation test, t-test and ANOVA were used in the study for statistical analysis using SPSS software.
Conclusion: This study confirms the impact of hormones on incidence of malocclusion, BMI which in turn influences the caries index and could be used as an early predictor.