Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposures to HIV and Hepatitis B: Our Experience of Thirteen Years at a Rural Based Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Western India OC39-OC44
Dr. Sanket Pranjivan Sheth,
Professor, Department of Medicine, Pramukh Swami Medical College, Karamsad, Dist.Anand, Gujarat, India.
Introduction: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, which can be minimized by following guidelines for standard precautions as well as taking Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) measures. There are limited studies from India documenting details of PEP for HIV and Hepatitis B.
Aim: We aimed to study the efficacy, tolerance, details of PEP regimens used among HCWs exposed to HIV and Hepatitis B as well as vaccination status and (Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen) anti-HBS Antibody Titre Level Among HCWs exposed Hepatitis B.
Study Design: This retrospective observational study was done at a rural based tertiary care teaching centre of Western India.
Materials and Methods: Hospital Infection Control Committee of our institute was maintaining a record of all reported incidences of HIV and Hepatitis B positive exposures since 2003. We analysised reported incidences of exposures to HIV and Hepatitis B positive source occurred during the period of January 2003 to December 2015.
Results: Of the total 96 exposures, 48 were to HIV and 48 were to Hepatitis B. Of the 48 exposures to HIV, PEP was warranted in 39. Of 39 exposures, only 14 (35.9%) received PEP within two hours. Basic regimen was used in 22 and expanded in 17 exposures. Only 12 (31.6%) reported side effects to PEP. Zidovudine based regimen was less well tolerated. All side effects were reported by female HCWs only. Of the 48 exposed to Hepatitis B, 33 (68.6%) were completely vaccinated. Out of 33, titre result was not available for eight. Three (12.0%) of remaining 25 were having low titre (<10mIU/ml) of anti-HBS antibody. Five of six with incomplete vaccination status demonstrated anti HBS antibody titre > 100mIU/ml. Of the 48, in 17 (35.4%) incidences no action was required; 23 (47.9%) were managed with booster dose of Hepatitis B vaccine and eight (16.7%) with Hepatitis B immunoglobulin. No cases of sero-conversion was reported either for HIV or Hepatitis B from available data.
Conclusion: Inspite of high incidences of exposures to HIV or Hepatitis B positive source, good efficacy of PEP was observed with no sero-conversion. PEP for HIV was well tolerated; female HCWs were less tolerant. Study emphasized the need for creating awareness about timely reporting of incidence, achieving maximum vaccination against Hepatitis B for all HCWs and need for anti-HBS antibody titre.