Galactomannan Assay and Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis - Comparison of the Test Performance at an in-house and the Kit Cut-off DC01-DC04
Dr. Jayanthi Savio,
Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, St Johnâ€™s Medical College, Bangalore-560034, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA) is an important opportunistic infection with a high degree of mortality and morbidity. Galactomannan assay (GM assay) is found to be useful for diagnosis of IPA in patients with neutropenia. However the utility of this assay has not been evaluated in a mixed patient population with other co-morbid conditions. Though a kit cut-off of 0.5 has been recommended for the diagnosis of IPA, studies have reported a higher sensitivity with cut-offs more than 0.5.
Aim: To establish an in-house cut-off and compare its utility with the kit cut-off to diagnose and categorize IPA as proven, probable and possible in patients with varied underlying risk factors.
Materials and Methods: This observational study was done in St Johnâ€™s Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India from January 2013-December 2014. GM assay was performed on 25 each of healthy controls and clinically diagnosed cases of IPA. The in-house cut-off was calculated by plotting the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC).
Results: The in-house cut-off was calculated to be 0.52. Using this and the kit cut-off (0.5), the Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and the Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were found to be 75%, 79%, 76%, 82% and 79%, 71%, 77%, 82% respectively. Diabetes mellitus was found to be associated with more than 50% of the patients.
Conclusion: The established in house cut-off using healthy controls and patients with clinical diagnosis of IPA was not significantly different from that of the kit cut-off. Using either of these cut-offs, we could re-categorize two of the possible IPA cases in the probable group. This study helped to understand the clinical utility of this assay even in a mixed patient population with multiple co-morbidities.