Study of Aplastic Anaemia with Cyclosporine in Resource Poor Setting OC15-OC18
Dr. Mallikarjuna Shetty,
Associate Professor, Department of General Medicine, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences,
Punjagutta, Hyderabad-5000082, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Aplastic Anaemia (AA) is a syndrome characterized by peripheral pancytopenia with hypo-cellular marrow. Acquired idiopathic AA is the most common variety, probably of an autoimmune aetiology. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice but cost is the limiting factor. Antithymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine-A is an alternative to BMT. Cyclosporine alone has been tried as a single agent in resource poor setting.
Aim: The study was conducted with the aim to observe the treatment response in aplastic anaemia to Cycloserine-A.
Materials and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed as AA and opted for Cyclosporine with informed consent were included in the study. All the subjects were started on 5mg/kg of Cyclosporine and were followed up for three months to see the treatment response. This study had the approval from IEC.
Results: Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. Age of the patients ranged from 10 to 65 years. Maximum number (10/20) of patients was in the 2nd decade. Most of the patients presented with mucosal bleeds and breathlessness on exertion; the predominant sign was pallor. Eleven patients had severe AA, eight had non severe and one had very severe anaemia. Out of 20, three patients were lost to follow-up and one patient discontinued therapy due to renal dysfunction; finally sixteen patients’ data was analysed. Out of 16 patients, 9 responded and 7 did not respond. Complete response was observed in three patients, partial response in six patients. Seven patients had drug toxicity in the form of acute renal failure and gum hypertrophy.
Conclusion: Cyclosporine seems to be a reasonable therapeutic option with good response rate and minimal side effects.