Efficacy of Caudal Clonidine and Fentanyl on Analgesia, Neuroendocrine Stress Response and Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgeries Under General Anaesthesia with Sevoflurane UC01-UC05
Dr. Nandita Joshi,
191 SBI Colony Paschim Vihar, New Delhi, India.
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Clonidine has proved to be effective drug for postoperative analgesia but itâ€™s efficacy to alter neuroendocrine stress response and emergence agitation is unknown. This study was conducted to assess and compare the efficacy of caudal fentanyl vs. clonidine for analgesia, blunting of neuroendocrine stress responses (NESR) and emergence agitation (EA) following sevoflurane anaesthesia.
Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind study enrolled 60 children undergoing infraumbilical surgery. Three groups of 20 each were assigned to receive caudal block with either bupivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg with normal saline (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg and 1 microgram*kg-1fentanyl (group II), or bupivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg and 3 Âµg/kg clonidine [group III]. Postoperative analgesia, sedation, NESR, emergence agitation and side effects were observed.
Results: VAS score at two hours was significantly less in group III (0.60Â± 0.60) than in group I (1.80Â± 0.41) and group II (1.25Â± 0.44),the time to rescue analgesia was also significantly greater in group III (8.03+0.41hours) than groups I and II (4.15Â± 0.54 hours) and (6.18Â± 0.5hours) respectively. The EA scores were significantly better in Group III but patients were significantly more sedated postoperatively. Intraoperatively, NESR was blunted in all the groups and the markers of NESR were lowest in group III.
Conclusion: Caudal clonidine in a dose of 3 Âµg/kg prolongs analgesia and decreases emergence agitation as compared to bupivacaine alone or with fentanyl 1Âµg/kg. Modulation of the neuroendocrine stress response was observed in all the investigated groups though the indicators were lowest in clonidine group.