Role of 3D Ultrasound and Doppler in Differentiating Clinically Suspected Cases of Leiomyoma and Adenomyosis of Uterus QC08-QC12
Dr. Manash Kumar Bora,
Second Floor, Vishram Apatment, Door No.4, S.V.Patel Salai, Pondicherry-605001, India.
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Introduction: Adenomyosis and Leiomyoma are common disorders affecting females in their reproductive age. They mimic each other in clinical presentation. Due to similarities in clinical symptoms and signs, missing one diagnosis in favour of the other is not very uncommon. Accurate diagnosis of these two conditions is important for their management. In this study we evaluated role of 3D Ultrasound and Doppler in differentiating clinically suspected cases of leiomyoma and adenomyosis of uterus.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding (with or without dysmenorrhoea), lump abdomen, chronic pelvic pain or dysparaunia who were clinically diagnosed as leiomyoma of uterus and/or adenomyosis were enrolled in to the study. These patients underwent transvaginal sonography (TVS), trans abdominal sonography (TAS) along with color and spectral Doppler sonography. Scanning was done in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle to avoid bias due high vascularity of endometrium in secretory phase. The morphology of the lesion, its vascularity, and Pulsality Index (PI), Resistive Index (RI) and Vmax (maximum velocity) were measured. Only those patients who were chosen for operative treatment were included in the study. Radiological diagnosis was then correlated with intra-operative and histopathological diagnosis.
Results: On imaging, while using morphological criteria and Doppler for diagnosing leiomyoma, it was found that “peripheral vascularity” was seen in 52 (89%) cases, which was the highest. Similarly while diagnosing adenomyosis it was, the criteria “central vascularity” was seen in 28 cases (93%) and “ill defined junctional zone in 3D ultrasound” was seen in 26 cases (86%), which was also observed to be highest. With the cut off values taken for PI,RI and Vmax, diagnosis of leiomyoma was found to be 93.4% sensitive, 95.6% specific and with a positive predictive value of 97.6% and negative predictive value of 88.6%. Diagnosis of adenomyosis showed a sensitivity of 95.6%, specificity of 93.4% and a positive predictive value of 88.6% and negative predictive value of 97.6%. Imaging dignosed the co-existence of both the conditions correctly in 8 (66%) cases.
Conclusion: The parameters of blood flow impedance (that is PI, RI, and Vmax) of arteries within or around the uterine lesions revealed a consistent and significant difference between leiomyoma and adenomyosis. So apart from morphological criteria used in 3D TAS and TVS, aid of color Doppler can more accurately differentiate and diagnose these conditions.