Pancytopenia in Multiple Myeloma- An Enigma: Our Experience from Tertiary Care Hospital EC04-EC06
Dr. Pooja K Suresh,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Light House Hill Road,
Manipal University, Mangalore 575001, India.
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm that is characterized by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cell in the bone marrow along with M-protein in the serum and/or urine. Pancytopenia as a initial presentation of multiple myeloma is quite unusual. We are presenting a case series having pancytopenia as the presenting complaint.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted for a period of 30 months, wherein all the cases of multiple myeloma presenting with pancytopenia were included. The complete blood picture, peripheral smear examination, bone marrow aspirate & protein electrophoresis of all the cases were reviewed & analysed.
Results: During the study period, 10 cases presented with pancytopenia with a mean age of 66.3 years (range: 59-72 years) at presentation with male: female ratio being 8:2. Fatigue and weakness was the most common symptom (100%) & average ESR was 104 mm/hour. High-resolution serum electrophoresis, showed a dense, sharp to wide M band in the gamma globulin region. Bone marrow plasma cell percentage was increased with an average of 63.1%. Bone marrow biopsy correlation was obtained in 100% cases.
Conclusion: Diagnosing multiple myeloma, presenting as pancytopenia requires a high degree of suspicion to avoid delay in initiation of treatment.