Clinical Evaluation of Correlation Between Diabetic Retinopathy with Modifiable, Non-Modifiable and Other Independent Risk Factors in Tertiary Set-up in Central Rural India NC10-NC14
Dr. Anjali P. Shrote,
S-9, Sharda Hostel, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University, Sawangi (Meghe),
Wardha-442001, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus and its related ocular complication like diabetic retinopathy (DR) are showing increased prevalence in India, but the magnitude of presence and progression of DR in central rural population and its relation to certain variables requires further exploration. Aim: To study the demographic profile on diabetic retinopathy and the association between different risk factors of diabetic retinopathy with its onset and severity.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (n=100) admitted to AVBRH, Sawangi (Meghe) in a duration of 2 months from April to June 2014. Snellenâ€™s chart, slit lamp, and indirect ophthalmoscope were used for ocular examination of all patients. Comprehensive examination was used for risk factor assessment.
Statistical Analysis: All data was entered into the proforma. Chi-square test, Studentâ€™s unpaired t-test and one way ANOVA using SPSS 17.0 and Graph Pad Prism 5.0. (p<0.05 was considered significant). R esults: The study showed that among all the diabetics (mean age 56.4+11.2 years), 68% were males and 97% type 2 diabetics. This study showed statistically significant association between serum triglyceride (p=0.0003), duration since diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (p=0.0006), serum total cholesterol (p=0.0021), FBG (p=0.003), serum HDL (p=0.012) and hypertension (p=0.045) with presence of diabetic retinopathy. The study also revealed that serum triglycerides (p=0.001), serum total cholesterol (p=0.006), BMI (p=0.04) and duration of diabetes (p=0.04) are the only factors which showed significant association with the severity of diabetic retinopathy.
Conclusion: Effective screening strategies for early detection of both diabetes and diabetic retinopathy should be formulated especially for the rural population which is not aware about the various complications of diabetes and their final outcomes. Diabetics should follow proper guidelines to prevent or delay progression of DR.