The Effect of Chronic Tobacco Smoking and Chewing on the Lipid Profile 31-34
Dr. Emmanuel Subash Y.,
Associate Professor, Department of Physiology,
Siddhartha Medical College, Gunadala,
Vijayawada-520 008 (A.P.) Southern India.
Background: A worldwide epidemic of cardio vascular diseases is evolving, out of which atherosclerosis appears to be the most frequent underlying cause. Cigarette smoking remains the most important cause of the preventable morbidity and the early mortality. Nicotine is highly addictive, it raises the brain levels of dopamine and it produces withdrawal symptoms on its discontinuation.
Aim: To study the effect of tobacco smoking &chewing on serum lipid profile.
Methods: Although a genetic predis-position to atherosclerosis may be the cause, a vast majority of the atherosclerotic related diseases, which include coronary heart diseases, are acquired. Those which usually appear later in life are largely preventable. Tobacco is the major and the single most preventable risk factor for atherosclerotic related, clinical events like coronary heart disease. This study was conducted on three groups of male subjects, with each group containing 25 individuals of 25 to 35 years of age and who weighed 50-70 kgs.
Group-I: non smokers and non chewers.
Group-II: smokers and non chewers.
Groupâ€“III: chewers and non smokers.
To estimate the triglycerides, glycerol which is derived from the saponification of triglycerides is oxidized to formaldehyde, which in turn is made to react with ammonia and acetylacetone to give rise to a chromogen (3.5 diacetyle-1,4 dihydrolutidine). It is quantified spectro-photometrically (the HANTZSCH reaction).
Results: The mean serum total cholesterol level in the subjects of Group II was more by about 16.94 % (p< 0.001) and that in the subjects of Group â€“III was more by 23.21% (p< 0.001). The mean serum VLDL level in the subjects of Group II had an increase of about 27.54% (p< 0.01) and in Group â€“III, it had increased by11.82% (p< 0.01). The mean serum LDL level in the subjects of Group II showed an increase of about 34.64% (p< 0.001) and in Group â€“III, it had increased by16.27% (p< 0.001). The mean serum HDL level in the subjects of Group II showed a decrease in the mean serum HDL level by about 9.78 % (p< 0.01) and in Group â€“III, it had decreased by 22.12% (p< 0.01). The mean serum Triglyceride level in the subjects of Group II showed an increase of about 25.40% (p< 0.001) and in Group â€“III, it was more by33.35% (p< 0.001).
Conclusion: There was a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-C in tobacco users ,as compared to non tobacco users.