Neurotoxic Effects of Fluoride in Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis and in Experimental Chronic Fluoride Toxicity 740-744
Dr. Shivashankara A.R. PhD.,
Associate Professor of Biochemistry,
Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India - 575002,
Phone: +918242238255; +919880146133.
Fluoride has a significant impact on the human health. Traces of fluoride are beneficial in preventing dental caries and osteoporosis, but the long-term intake of high levels of fluoride, mainly via drinking water, causes detrimental effects. High levels of fluoride cause dental and skeletal fluorosis and even the soft tissues are not spared from fluoride toxicity. Fluoride can cross the blood brain barrier and it can cause adverse effects on the brain cell architecture, metabolism, enzymes, the oxidantantioxidant status and on neurotransmitters and overall adverse effects on the mental functions. Fluoride induces the generation of free radicals, it increases lipid peroxidation, it impairs the antioxidants, it inhibits the key enzymes of the metabolic pathways, it impairs energy generation, and it inhibits protein synthesis. Excitoxicity, which has been proposed as the major mechanism in the neurotoxic manifestations of fluoride, needs a detailed and critical evaluation.