An Indian Study of a Novel Non-invasive
Method of Screening for Foetal Anaemia
Dr. Sushil Ghanshyam Kachewar,
MD, DNB (Radio-diagnosis)
Associate Professor, Rural
Medical College, PIMS, Loni, India.
Purpose: The assessment of foetal Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity (MCA-PSV) is useful in non-invasively diagnosing foetal anaemias, irrespective of their cause. A study was therefore undertaken to find out its effectiveness in the local obstetric population.
Materials and methods: Doppler ultrasound measurements of foetal MCA-PSV were done in 1200 pregnant women who were referred for antenatal ultrasound between 12-40 weeks of gestation. The statistical analysis was done by using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS software, version 12.
Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation was found to exist between the gestational age and MCA-PSV. 14 foetuses had their MCA-PSV elevated enough to label them as being anaemic. Iso-immunization was seen in 4 foetuses, severe maternal hypertension in 4, foetal parvo virus B19 infection in 3 and thalassemia in 3. Also, a disturbed MCA waveform pattern (The K-G waveform) was transiently seen in few cases with normal MCA-PSV values (The Pravara Effect).
Conclusion: Foetal MCA-PSV can objectively demonstrate foetal anaemia in pregnant patients, irrespective of the underlying cause. Every effort must therefore be made to use this non-invasive test to look for foetal anaemia in the obstetric population.