Association of the Electrolyte
Disturbances (Na+, K+) with the Type and
Severity of the Malarial Parasitic Infection
Jasmin H. Jasani
C-13, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth Campus, Pipariaâ€“Vadodara
Gujarat, India - 391760
Background and Objective: Malaria is a life-threatening disease which is caused by malaria parasite. It is a major public health problem in India. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible changes in the electrolytes (Na+ and K+) in cases of malaria, on the basis of their severity.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the severity of hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia and their association with the severity of malaria in a large cohort of known patients of malaria, which was caused by the P.falciparum and the P.vivax species of Plasmodium.
Material and Methods: The serum sodium and serum potassium levels were analyzed in two cohorts, each comprising 400 diagnosed cases of P. Falciparum and P. Vivax (200 +200) malaria respectively, in a tertiary care hospital in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. The patients were divided into two groups of severe (200) and non-severe (200) cases of malaria, based on the WHO guidelines and criteria.
Statistical Analysis: The data from the study were analyzed separately by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results were presented as Mean Â± SD. A p value of <0.05 were considered to be significant.
Results: The mean levels of serum sodium and serum potassium in the cases of P. Falciparum malaria were significantly reduced as compared to those in the cases of P.vivax malaria. Hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia were more common in P.falciparum than in P.vivax malaria. The levels of sodium and potassium are significantly reduced in the severe malaria cases as compared to those in the non severe malaria cases.
Conclusion: Hyponatraemia and Hypokalaemia are common in malaria and they are associated with severe falciparum and vivax malaria. Correction of the electrolyte imbalance in the severe cases is of great significance in the management of the patients.