The Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on the Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Sickle Cell Anaemia
Prakash S. Hundekar, Associate Professor,
Department of Biochemistry, ACPM Medical College,
Background: Sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary disorder, associated with severe haemolytic anaemia, periodical vasoocclusive pain and premature death. Oxidative stress is one of the factors that may enhance the rate of haemolysis by damaging the erythrocyte membrane by lipid peroxidation.
Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the oxidant and antioxidant status in sickle cell individuals and the effect of antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress.
Material and Method: A total of 90 subjects participated in the study, including 30 heterozygous (HbAS) and 30 homozygous (HbSS) sickle cell patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma protein carbonyl , serum nitric oxide (NO), the erythrocytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma before and one month after of antioxidant supplementation.
Results: The baseline levels of MDA, protein carbonyl, NO and the activity of SOD were significantly (p<0.001) elevated in the HbSS and HbAS groups as compared to those of the controls. The baseline level of the activity of catalase and the TAC of plasma were significantly (p<0.001) decreased in the HbSS and HbAS groups as compared to those in the controls. After the supplementation of the antioxidants, we found a significant (p<0.001) decrease in the levels of MDA, protein carbonyl, NO and in the activity of SOD, while there was a significant (p<0.001) increase in the level of activity of catalase and in the TAC of plasma in both the groups of sickle cell patients.
Conclusion: The values of both the oxidants and the antioxidants did not meet that of the controls, thus suggesting a spontaneous generation of free radicals that consumed the antioxidants. Therefore, antioxidant supplementation is essential in sickle cell individuals in the steady state as well as in illness, to prevent the oxidative damage to the erythrocytes.