Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
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Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

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I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



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Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Dentistry
Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 396 - 398

Restorative - Orthodontics: Is This An Option?

ANIL SHARMA

Dept of orthodontics

Correspondence Address :
Anil Sharma, Alignorthodontics, B-280 G/F, Sector-57,
Gurgaon, Haryana-122002.
E-mail: alignorthodontics@rediffmail.com
Phone: 09910088977, 0124-4294280

Abstract

Edentulous spaces in the dental arches have conventionally been managed with either implants or other fixed or removable prostheses. This article describes another possibility of orthodontically closing these extraction spaces, especially in young individuals, thereby restoring an ideal occlusion and arch integrity without the need of aprosthesis. This article presentscase reports where the edentulous spaces were closed orthodontically, leaving no room for a prosthesis, thereby providing a physiologically balanced occlusion and avoiding the lifelong maintenance of a prosthesis.

Keywords

molar protraction, edentulous space closure

How to cite this article :

ANIL SHARMA. RESTORATIVE - ORTHODONTICS: IS THIS AN OPTION?. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 April [cited: 2019 Aug 21 ]; 5:396-398. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=April&volume=5&issue=2&page=396-398&id=1265

A missing tooth in a dental office, is always a potential case for a bridge or an implant. The treatment is predictable and the treatment time is shorter. But , there is a possibility in orthodontics that can be explored in some cases, especially in young individuals where the edentulous spaces are closed to give a physiologically balanced occlusion, thus avoiding the lifelong maintenance of a prosthesis. Many orthodontic patients have posterior spacing due to missing mandibular teeth. Excluding the third molars, the mandibular second premolar is the most common congenitally absent tooth (1).The mandibular first molar is the most frequently lost tooth in adults (2).

Molar protraction can be an alternative to restoration with posterior dental implants or fixed partial dentures. Three case reports are presented in this article, in which the posterior edentulous spaces were closed by molar protraction (mesial movement of the molar into the edentulous space).

Case Report

Case Report 1:
An 18 yr. old young girl reported to the clinic with a missing lower left 1st molar, which had been extracted due to an extensive carious lesion, asking for the replacement of the same. On clinical examination, she presented with an anterior openbite, excessive overjet, as well as crowding in the lower anterior region. The lower left 2nd molar had tipped mesially into the extraction space. The attention of the patient and her parents was drawn towards the existing condition and a holistic approach was discussed, to orthodontically treat the condition to achieve a better occlusion as well as the space closure of the missing left 1st molar space by the mesial movement of the 2nd molar and the retraction of the anteriors.

The treatment plan included - extraction of - upper left and - right 1st premolars , - lower right 1st premolar and the use of the space of - missing left lower 1st molar in the lower left quadrant. The case was treated orthodontically. A straight wire appliance with an MBT prescription and an .022 slot was used to treat the case. The extractions of the three premolars were carried out as planned, the upper and the lower arches were bonded with the straight wire appliance and the treatment was initiated.

The crowding was relieved in the lower segment. The initial leveling and alignment was carried out with the help of flexible nickel-titanium wires. The lower left second molar which had tipped mesially into the extraction space of the missing 1st molar, was uprighted before moving it mesially to close the edentulous space. The upper anterior teeth were retracted sufficiently and were extruded to eliminate their proclination and to establish an ideal overjet and an overbite relationship.

The canines were brought in a class-1 relationship and the residual spaces were closed by the mesial movement of the molars. The post -treatment photographs show the complete closure of the open-bite thus establishing a normal overjet-overbite relationship. The edentulous space of the missing lower left 1st molar was taken up by the lower left 2nd molar and this facilitated the eruption of the lower left 3rd molar into the arch.

The final result shows a comfortable occlusion, an ideal overjetoverbite and a good posterior intercuspation. At the end of the treatment, the patient’s facial profile had improved. The patient was happy to have straighter teeth, a pleasant smile and above all, the edentulous space had been closed completely, without the need for any prosthesis.

With this treatment, not only was the patient’s appearance improved, but also, the posterior occlusion which had been mutilated on the left side due to the loss of the lower 1st molar, was restored completely without the need for any prosthesis.

Case Report 2:
A female patient who was aged 19 yrs, reported to the clinic for the restoration of the edentulous space in relation to the mandibular right and left 1st molars with a dental bridge. On examination, the patient was found to have crowding in both the arches. Since the lower first molars had been missing for many years, the upper first molars had supra-erupted into the edentulous space, thus disturbing the bite. The adverse effects of this malocclusion were discussed with the patient and her parents.

Since there was - crowding of teeth in both the arches and as the upper teeth were also proclined, it was decided to extract the upper first premolars to relieve the crowding and to retract the anterior teeth. In the lower arch, the space which was available due to the missing first molars was used to relieve the crowding. A straight wire appliance (MBT prescription - .022 slot) was bonded to both the arches. Retraction of upper and the lower anterior teeth was carried out to relieve the crowding and to reduce the overjet /overbite.

The remaining space was closed by protracting the molars forward into the extraction space. Care was taken not to over-retract the lower anterior teeth to maintain a normal overjet-overbite relationship of the anterior teeth. Heavy Cl-II elastics were used to protract the lower molars and to maintain the overjet-overbite relation of the anterior teeth. The closure of the lower molar spaces was achieved as promised, without any prosthesis, as well as the patient’s facial appearance was improved with the extraction of the upper 1st premolars and the subsequent retraction of the anterior teeth into these extraction spaces. A good occlusion, a pleasant smile and a well balanced facial musculature was achieved at the end of the treatment.

At the end of the treatment, the patient was happy to have straight teeth which were easy to clean and that looked good too. The patient’s desire for an artificial replacement of the missing tooth, was thus substituted with a natural healthy dentition, without the need for any artificial tooth.

Case Report 3:
A patient who was aged 16yrs consulted the clinic for the extraction of the root stump of the maxillary right 1st molar and the restoration of the edentulous spaces of the upper right first molar and the lower left first molar.

The patient did - present crowding of teeth in both the arches and so the possibility of an orthodontic correction of the teeth was discussed with the patient. The maxillary 1st bicuspid in the left quadrant was also extracted to relieve the crowding and to restore the midline. In the mandible, no extraction was carried out and the teeth were uncrowded by using the edentulous space of the lower left first molar.

The residual space in the lower arch was eliminated by protracting the lower left second molar into the extraction space. A temporary anchorage device was used to protract the molars forward into the extraction space. At the end of the treatment, the patient was satisfied to achieve an aesthetic smile, a better functional occlusion, hygienically maintainable teeth and no prosthesis.

Conclusion

The protraction of the mandibular molars is challenging because of the high density of mandibular bone. Anterior dental anchorage is often inadequate to protract even a single first molar without the reciprocal retraction of the incisors or the movement of the dental midline. Furthermore, if the buccal and lingual cortical plates in the edentulous region have collapsed, a safe and effective protraction may be impossible. Avoiding anchorage loss is considerably more challenging in the mandible than in the maxilla, in part because of the structural differences between the two jaws. The posterior maxilla is composed of uniformly thin cortices which are interconnected by a network of spacious trabeculae (3), while the posterior mandible consists of a thicker cortical bone with dense, radially oriented trabeculae (4).

In the molar region, the maxilla has an average buccal cortical thickness of 1.5mm, as compared to the 2mm thickness in the mandible (4),(5).

The rate of molar protraction is inversely related to the radiographical density or the cortical thickness of the resisting alveolar bone (6).

Because of the increased thickness of the mandibular cortical bone, the rate of mandibular molar translation with skeletal anchorage is nearly half that of the maxillary molar translation, which is approximately .34-.60mm per month (7).

Many adult orthodontic patients with posterior edentulous spacing have been missing teeth for years and therefore exhibit alveolar ridge resorption. The rate of resorption is greatest during the first several months to two years after extraction, but it decreases thereafter (8).

The amount of post-extraction resorption is significantly greater on the buccal than on the lingual side in both the arches (9).

During the first year after tooth extraction, the amount of resorption in the mandible is twice of that in the maxilla—a ratio that increases to 4:1 after seven years (10).

The potential risks of molar protraction through an atrophic ridge include the loss of attachment (particularly in the presence of plaque), dehiscence, mobility, ankylosis, root resorption, devitalization, and tooth morbidity. Although a successful molar protraction through the atrophic ridges has been reported [11-12],no clinical study to date, has evaluated the correlation between an atrophic ridge and periodontal response during bodily tooth movement. Hence, the decision on whether to proceed with orthodontic tooth movement through an atrophic ridge must be made on a case-to-case basis.

References

1.
Thilander, B. and Myrberg, N.: The prevalence of malocclusion in Swedish schoolchildren, Scand. J. Dent. Res. 1973, 81:12-21.
2.
Meskin, L.H. and Brown, L.J.: Prevalence and patterns of tooth loss in U.S. employed adult and senior populations, J. Dent. Educ. 1988, 52:686-691.
3.
Adell, R.; Lekholm, U.; Rockler, B.; and Brånemark, P.I.: A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw, Int. J. Oral Surg. 1981, 10:387-416.
4.
Deguchi, T.; Nasu, M.; Murakami, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Kamioka, H.; and Takano-Yamamoto, T.: Quantitative evaluation of cortical bone thickness with computed tomographic scanning for orthodontic implants, Am. J. Orthod. 2006, e7-12: 129:721.
5.
Katranji, A.; Misch, K.; and Wang, H.L.: Cortical bone thickness in dentate and edentulous human cadavers, J. Periodontol. 2007, 78:874-878.
6.
[Roberts, W.E.: Bone physiology, metabolism, and biomechanics in orthodontic practice, in Orthodontics: Current Principlesand Techniques, 2nd ed., ed. T.M. Graber and R.L. Vanarsdall, Mosby, St. Louis, 1994, 193-234.
7.
Roberts, W.E.; Arbuckle, G.R.; and Analoui, M.: Rate of mesial translation of mandibular molars using implant-anchored mechanics, Angle Orthod. 1996, 66:331-338.
8.
Woelfel, J.B.; Winter, C.M.; and Igarashi, T.: Five-year cephalometric study of mandibular ridge resorption with different posterior occlusal forms, Part I: Denture construction and initial comparison, J. Prosth. Dent. 1976, 36:602-623.
9.
Irinakis, T.: Rationale for socket preservation after extraction of a single-rooted tooth when planning for future implant placement, J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 2006, 72:917-922.
10.
Kovacic´, I.; Celebic, A.; Knezovic´ Zlataric´, D.; Stipetic´, J.; and Papic, M.: Influence of body mass index and the time of edentulousness on the residual alveolar ridge resorption in complete denture wearers, Coll. Antropol. 27(Suppl. 2): 2003, 69-74.
11.
Roberts, W.E.; Nelson, C.L.; and Goodacre, C.J.: Ridge implant anchorage to close a mandibular first molar extraction site, J. Clin. Orthod. 1994,28:693-704.
12.
Roberts, W.E.; Marshall, K.J.; and Mozsary, P.G.: Rigid endosseous implant utilized as anchorage to protract molars and close an atrophic extraction site, Angle Orthod. 1990, 60:135-152.

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