Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
It also gives due credit to all research designs like descriptive and qualitative studies while many journals ignore these important study designs. The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality
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It's wide scope welcomes articles across various specialities in medicine. In an era when there is an unscientific insistence on speciality specific research by regulatory bodies in medical education, JCDR supports collaborative research across specialities. I wish the publisher all the best in his future endeavors."



Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 282 - 286

A study on the Morphology and the Morphometry of the Human Placenta and its Clinical Relevance in a population in Tamilnadu

GUNAPRIYA RAGHUNATH, VIJAYALAKSHMI, VARSHA SHENOY

Dept of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Gunapriya Raghunath, Plot No:38, Thirukkural street, Kamakshi
Nagar, Valasaravakkam, Chennai-600087.
Email:gunapriyar@yahoo.com,
Phone: 94440 78709, 80561 51740

Abstract

Context (Background): The placenta is a dynamic organ which is unique in its development and functions. It is the only organ in the body which is derived from two separate individuals, the mother and the foetus. The placenta is responsible for the respiratory, nutritional, excretory, endocrinal and the immunological functions of the foetus. The anomalies of the placenta are usually associated with placental insufficiency, which could lead to complications in the foetus. Hence, a thorough examination of the placenta in-utero, as well as post-partum, gives valuable information about the state of the foetal well being.

Aims: To study the morphology and the morphometric analysis of the placenta and to clinically correlate it with the foetal parameters, in order to help in the assessment of the state of the well being of the foetus.

Methods and material: A total of 101 placentae were freshly collected (76 from uncomplicated deliveries and 25 from various factors which complicated the pregnancy). The placental parameters and their respective maternal and foetal details were collected, analysed and clinically correlated.

Results: Out of 101 placentae which were collected (91 full term babies and 10 preterm babies), 94 were circular in shape and 7 were oval in shape. In this study, the average diameter of the placenta was 17.4cm, the average thickness 2.1cm and the average weight of the placenta was 528.55gm.This study showed a placental coefficient of 0.19. The parameters of the placentae which were collected from babies whose mothers had factorswhich complicated their pregnancy, correlated well with their foetal parameters. A subchorionic placental cyst with clear serous fluid was observed in one case. The amniotic membrane was translucent in 93% of the cases. The placental cotyledons on an average were 18 in number. This study revealed the presence of placental calcification in 20% of the cases, retro-placental clots in three cases and the presence of placenta succenturiata in three cases.

Conclusion: An adequate knowledge of the morphometry of the placenta and its clinical relevance can prove to be valuable in the early assessment of the foetal well being, especially in a community like ours, where antenatal mothers still come unbooked to the labour room, with no prior investigations done.

Keywords

Placenta, morphometry, foeto-placental ratio, placental coefficient, placental infarction, cotyledon, amniotic band, placental cyst, placenta succenturiata

How to cite this article :

GUNAPRIYA RAGHUNATH, VIJAYALAKSHMI, VARSHA SHENOY. A STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND THE MORPHOMETRY OF THE HUMAN PLACENTA AND ITS CLINICAL RELEVANCE IN A POPULATION IN TAMILNADU. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 April [cited: 2019 Feb 21 ]; 5:282-286. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=April&volume=5&issue=2&page=282-286&id=1250

The placenta is a unique characteristic of higher mammals which is attached to the uterus and is connected to the foetus through the umbilical cord. Researchers have, for a long time, emphasized the benefits which are associated with the anatomical examination of the placenta, an organ that is often disposed soon after parturition, without adequate examination. The examination of the placenta in utero as well as postpartum, gives valuable information about the state of the foetal well being (1). Hence, this study was done to correlate the morphological parameters of the placenta with the foetal parameters in a population in Tamilnadu.

Material and Methods

A total number of 101 freshly delivered placentae were collected from the government hospital for women and children in Egmore, Chennai. The placentae were collected soon after their expulsion, both from normal deliveries and caesarean sections. The collected placentae were washed under running tap water and the membraneswere thoroughly examined and trimmed. The umbilical cord was cut, leaving a length of 5cms from its placental site of insertion. The specimens were then transported to the Department of Anatomy in formalin (10%) filled plastic containers. All the specimens were tagged with number discs before the commencement of the study, for the purpose of identity.
In all the collected placentae, the following parameters were studied:
1. Weight 2. Shape 3. The foeto-placental ratio 4. The placental coefficient 5. The number of cotyledons 6. The colour of the placental membranes 7. The presence of subchorionic fibrosis

The presence of the following abnormal placental characteristicswere also looked for:
1. Placental calcification 2. Amniotic bands 3. Retro-placental clots 4. Accessory placental lobes 5. Placental cysts on the membranes
The placentae were collected from:
1. Normal uncomplicated primigravid and multigravid cases 2. Pathological factors which complicated pregnancy, which included: 1. Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) 2. Diabetes mellitus 3. Anaemia which complicates pregnancy 4. Rh-isoimmunisation 5. Prematurity 6. Post-maturity 7. Abruptio-placenta 8. Intra-uterine death (IUD) 9. Twin pregnancy
The babies whose placentae were utilized in this study were also examined for the following factors:
1. Sex of the baby 2. Weight of the baby 3. Maturity of the baby 4. Visible anomalies in the baby In each case, a preliminary history was elicited from the mother regarding her age, parity, the period of amenorrhoea, the history of bleeding per vaginum and her previous obstetric history with regard to PIH and diabetes mellitus.

Babies whose placentae showed the presence of abnormal findings were subjected to thorough clinical investigations to rule out the presence of foetal anomalies. All the parameters which were studied were tabulated and analysed. (Table/Fig 1)

Results

Shape
Out of the 101 cases, 94 were circular in shape and 7 were oval in shape. (Table/Fig 2)

Weight of the placenta
In this study, the placental weight ranged from 80gm to 800gm, with an average of 528.55gm. (Table/Fig 3)

The correlation of the weight of the placenta with the weight of the baby
The ratio of the foetal weight to the placental weight is known as the foeto-placental ratio, which is normally 6:1. (the weight of the foetus : the placental weight) 1. In the present study, this ratio was 5.35:1(both sexes considered together) 2. In male babies, it was 5.4:1 3. In female babies, it was 5.3:1 There is yet another method to correlate the weight of the baby and the placenta, which is by assessing the placental coefficient.

Placental weight in grams ÷ Birth weight in grams = placental coefficient
The present study showed a placental coefficient of 0.19.
(Table/Fig 4)

The placental characteristics in the factors which complicate pregnancy
In PIH, the average foeto-placental ratio was 6.03:1and the average placental coefficient was 0.165, which showed that the weight of the placenta decreases with the severity of the toxaemia of pregnancy. Out of the five cases of PIH, three of them showed the presence of placental infarction.

Diabetes mellitus showed a foeto-placental ratio of 5.22:1, with an increase in the birth weight and an increase in the placental weight.

Severe cases of anaemia below 7 gm% haemoglobin, showed a significant reduction in the placental weight, a foeto-placental ratio of 5:1 and an increase in the number of ill-defined cotyledons

The cases of Rh-isoimmunisation and prematurity showed a significant decrease in the placental weight. The foeto-placental ratios in these cases were 6:1 and 4.5:1 respectively

The post-maturity cases showed a foeto-placental ratio of 6.2:1 and an increased incidence of calcification, subchorionic fibrosis, infarction and meconium stained membranes

The twin pregnancy which was observed in this study showed a foeto-placental ratio of 5.4:1.

The average number of placental cotyledons was 18 and this study revealed a paucity of cotyledons in cases of PIH, low birth weight (Table/Fig 2): Figure shows a commonly occurring circular placenta and prematurity. (Table/Fig 5)

Foetal membranes -In the cases of placentae with opaque membranes, the babies had a cord around the neck three times and they were mildly asphyxiated. They were resuscitated immediately. Five of the meconium stained membranes were associated with foetal distress. (Table/Fig 6)

Subchorionic fibrosis was present in all the term placentae. Calcification of placenta was observed in 20% of the cases in this study and these cases were associated with post-maturity and foetal distress. (Table/Fig 7)The amniotic band was not observed in this study.

Cases of abruptio-placenta showed the presence of retro-placental clots.

Three cases of placenta succenturiata were observed in this study, where in two of them the succenturiate lobes measured 3cms in diameter and in the other, it measured 8cms x 4.5cms. All the three mothers gave a history of antepartum haemorrhage. (Table/Fig 8)

A subchorionic placental cyst was observed near the umbilical cord insertion in one case and on aspiration, the cyst was found to contain clear, serous fluid. The baby in this case was associated with foetal growth retardation. (Table/Fig 9)




Discussion

A total number of 101 placentae including those of twins, were studied and their morphological parameters were recorded and clinically correlated with the observations which were made by other researchers on this topic.

Shape of the placenta
94 placentae had a normal circular shape and 7 were oval in shape (2).

Weight of the placenta
Armitage et al. reported the average weight of the placenta to be 508gm (3) and the present study showed an average placental weight of 528.6gms, which could be due to an improvement in the antenatal care, follow up and the nutritional status of the antenatal mother.

The foeto-placental ratio and the placental coefficient in uncomplicated pregnancies
The normal foeto-placental ratio is 6:1 for a western population, whereas in this study, the ratio was 5.4:1 for male babies and 5.3:1for female babies, in cases of uncomplicated pregnancies.

The normal placental coefficient is 0.12-0.2, the average being 0.15. The present study showed an average placental coefficient of 0.19 in uncomplicated pregnancies, which coincides with the normal value.

Factors which complicate pregnancy PIH
The foeto-placental unit is adversely affected in PIH. Due to placental insufficiency, the foetal growth is affected. According to previous studies, for the evaluation of foetus, the weight of the placenta is not enough, but the foeto-placental ratio is important (4). Thomson et al. and Saigal et al. observed that the placental weight and birth weight were below average, but that their ratio was slightly increased in cases of PIH (4), (5).

The present study revealed an average placental weight of 398gm, a birth weight of 2.4kg, a foeto-placental ratio of 6.03:1and a placental coefficient of 0.165, in cases of PIH.

Zeek and Assali defined placental infarction as a zone of ischaemic necrosis of a group of villi, due to complete interference with their blood supply in the deciduas or by the thrombosis of a spiral arteriole (6). Fox and Udainia observed placental infarcts in cases of PIH (7), (8). This study showed placental infarcts of a mild variety in four cases of PIH (80% of the PIH cases in this study) in the form of a few scattered foci of infarcts, during the gross examination of the placentae. It has been further stated that the extent and the incidence of infarction increases with the increasing severity of toxaemia (7). (Table/Fig 10)

Diabetes mellitus
One of the characteristic features of a placenta in maternal diabetes mellitus, is its increase in weight (9). The present study showed an almost normal foeto-placental ratio of 5.22:1, in cases of diabetes mellitus, due to a good control of blood sugar in the mothers who were utilized in this study.

Other factors which complicate pregnancy
In cases of anaemia, Rh isoimmunisation and prematurity, the average placental weight was low, as these cases were associated with low-birth weight babies

Postmaturity
These cases were associated with placental calcification, meconium stained membranes and foetal distress. These findings correlated with the study of Burgess and Hutchins whose results support the concept that the meconium passage in-utero may occur as a response to foetal distress (10).

Twins
Ramos-Arroyo et al. reported that dichorionic dizygotic twins were the heaviest and suggested that chorion status is a more important determinant of birth weight than zygosity (11). One case of a dichorionic dizygotic twin was observed in the present study, with the birth weight of the twins being1.8kg and 2kg respectively and thiscoincided with the results of the former study.

Subchorionic fibrosis
Gray scale ultrasonography can detect the internal lesions of the placenta. Subchorionic fibrosis is caused due to subchorionic fibrin deposits which may be seen in all term placentae and are not of clinical significance, as stated by Spirt et al (12).

This study showed the presence of subchorionic fibrosis in all the term placentae.

Cotyledons
A paucity of cotyledons was observed in this study, in cases of PIH, prematurity and low-birth weight babies, which coincided with the findings of Nordenvall et al (13).

Amniotic bandis reported in 1-2% of the malformed foetuses, with a male predominance in less than 32 week old foetuses, perhaps due to the large size and the more vigorous movements of the male foetuses, which may induce an early amnion rupture (14). The amniotic band was not observed in this study.

Placental cyst
Raga et al. reported that subchorionic placental cysts are ominous findings and that when they are found near the umbilical cord insertion, they may be associated with foetal growth retardation and intrauterine asphyxia due to umbilical cord constriction (15). One case of subchorionic placental cyst was observed in this study too and it was associated with foetal growth retardation.

Placenta succenturiata
Siegler and Sacks stated that the cases of placenta succenturiata were invariably associated with antepartum haemorrhage (16). All the three cases of placenta succenturiata which were observed in this study were associated with antepartum haemorrhage.

Conclusion

The placenta is a mirror which reflects the intrauterine status of the foetus (8). With the advent of advanced investigative technologies such as the Gray scale ultrasound and Colour Doppler Imaging, an adequate knowledge of the morphometric analysis of the placenta with its clinical relevance proves to be useful in the early assessment of placental sufficiency and also the state of the foetal well being. In mothers who have had no previous antenatal check up, a thorough examination of the placenta helps in the early diagnosis of the foetal complications, soon after parturition and thus helps in the early treatment of the baby by neonatologists.

Key Message

1. “Placenta” or the “After birth” begins to meet the demands of the embryo, as early as from the third week of the intrauterine life, even before the mother is aware of her pregnancy. 2. The placenta is the accurate record of the infant’s prenatal experiences. 3. The anomalies of placenta which are detected by ultrasound may indicate the presence of complications in the foetus. 4. The foeto-placental ratio and the placental coefficient can help to assess the severity of the toxaemia of pregnancy. 5. In unbooked cases, a thorough examination of the placenta postpartum indicates the state of the foetal well-being.

Acknowledgement

1. I would like to express my sincere and profound gratitude to Dr. T. R. Kalavathy, Retired Director and Professor, Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-3, who guided me through this study. 2. My heartfelt thanks also go to Dr. K. Kamakshi, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Satyabama Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, who also helped me in this study. 3. I would also like to thank Dr. P. Saraswathi, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College, Thandalam, Chennai-602105.

References

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