Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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On Sep 2018




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Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Dr. Arunava Biswas
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Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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On Aug 2018




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Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 252 - 253

Psoriasis: An oxidative stress condition

JYOTHI R.S. GOVINDSWAMY K.S., GURUPADAPPA K.

Dept of Biochemistry SIMS, Shimoga

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Jyothi. R.S. Assistant Professor, Dept of Biochemistry,
Shivamogga Institute of Medocal Sciences Shimoga-577201,
Karnataka, India Email: bjk1976@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and a high frequency of cardiovascular events. Several studies have attributed the hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperlipoproteinaemia to retinoids, corticosteroids and thiazide diuretics which are used in the treatment of psoriasis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether psoriasis per se is associated with an abnormal lipid profile or whether an abnormal lipid profile occurs due to the medications of psoriasis. Efforts were made to find other diseases which were associated with psoriasis.

This study included 20 male and 20 female, moderate to severe psoriatic patients between the age group of 20-50 years. These patients were clinically diagnosed as psoriasis and had not yet received any treatment. These patients were compared with age and sex matched healthy control subjects. We estimated serumlipid profile, Vitamin E, malondialdehyde (MDA), fasting blood sugar and aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels in psoriatic patients and in the control subjects by using the “auto analyzer” and spectrophotometric methods. The psoriatic patients presented a significant increase in the serum lipid profile and malondialdehyde levels and a significant decrease in vitamin E levels. They also showed a significant increase in the fasting blood sugar and the AST and ALT levels.

The data which were obtained from the study i.e. increase in serum lipids and malondialdehyde and decrease in Vitamin E levels show an established state of oxidative stress. The increase in fasting blood sugar and AST and ALT levels indicate that psoriasis may be associated with other oxidative conditions like diabetes mellitus and “non specific” liver disease.

Keywords

psoriasis, oxidants, antioxidants, oxidative stress conditions, cardiovascular events.

How to cite this article :

JYOTHI R.S. GOVINDSWAMY K.S., GURUPADAPPA K.. PSORIASIS: AN OXIDATIVE STRESS CONDITION. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 April [cited: 2018 Nov 15 ]; 5:252-253. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=April&volume=5&issue=2&page=252-253&id=1247

Psoriasis is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting about 2% of the general population. The prevalence rates in Europe are quoted to be about 1.5%, whereas in U.S.A., the prevalence is estimated to be about 4.6%. In contrast, lower prevalence rates have been observed in east Africans, American blacks, Indians (0.7%) and among the Chinese populations (0.4%) (1). While the causes of this disease are unknown, genetic, metabolic, immune and environmental factors have been proposed (2). The significance of the genetic background becomes evident, with a concordance of approximately 60% in monozygotic twins (1).

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which is characterized by an increased prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hyperlipoproteinaemia and oxidative stress, leading to occlusive vascular diseases, cardiovascular accidents, arthritis, diabetes and liver diseases (3), (4), (5).

Several studies have attributed obesity, hypertension and hyperlipoproteinaemia to retinoids, corticosteroids and thiazide diuretics, and liver disease to cyclosporine and methotrexate (anti-metabolites) which are used in the treatment of psoriasis (6), (7).

So, the present study was undertaken to evaluate whether psoriasis per se is a metabolic disease with multisystem involvement or whether the multisystem involvement occurs due to the various medications which are used by the psoriatic patients.

Material and Methods

The present study included 20 male and 20 female, moderate to severe psoriatic patients between the age group of 20-50 years, who were attending Chigateri Hospital which is attached to the J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere. These patients were clinically diagnosed as psoriatic, they had not received any treatment and all the factors for secondary hyperlipidaemia were excluded. The patients and the control subjects were explained in detail about the studyand informed consent was taken from them. Approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere, to use human subjects in the research work.

We estimated serum lipid profile, vitamin-E, malondialdehyde, fasting blood sugar, and AST and ALT levels in the patients and the control subjects by using a Hitachi-916 auto analyzer. Vitamin-E and malondialdehyde levels were estimated by spectrophotometric methods also (8),(9).Approximately 5ml of fasting venous blood sample was drawn and centrifuged and serum was used for analysis.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Descriptive data tests were presented as Mean ± SD. The Mann- Whitney test was used for group comparison. For all, a p-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical analysis

Results

We found in our study that the psoriatic patients had significantly increased serum lipids, MDA, fasting blood glucose and AST and ALT levels and significantly decreased levels of Vitamin-E as compared to the control subjects. (Table/Fig 1)(Significantly different from control subjects at p<0.05 (Mann- Whitney test)

Discussion

We found in our study that the psoriatic patients had significantly increased serum lipids, MDA, fasting blood glucose and AST and ALT levels and decreased levels of Vitamin-E as compared to the control subjects, which was in accordance with the findings of other studies (3),(5).

Although there have been extensive studies on the roles of serum lipids, oxidants and antioxidant levels in psoriasis, their importance in the aetiology or in the enhancement of the disease remains controversial. It has been suggested that there is a genetic predisposition for developing the disease and that several conditions may trigger an enhancement of the disease such as infections, skin traumas, oxidant drugs and stress conditions. Psoriasis is also frequently associated with some diseases, namely cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. It is interesting to notice that these commonly associated pathologies are known as “oxidative stress conditions”. Psoriasis as a clinically inflammatory skin disease, may per se impose an oxidative stress condition (5).

Several studies have found that in psoriasis, the fatty acid composition of the plasma and adipose tissue show a number of aberrations. There was a marked increase in the levels of arachidonic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids and a decrease in the levels of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, which were found to be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperlipoproteinaemia (6),(10).

The pattern of the increased levels of palmitic and palmitoleic acids and decreased levels of linoleic acid has been considered to be an indicator of a relative deficiency of essential FAs, which has been reported in patients at a risk of (10)(11) and suffering from coronary heart disease (12),(13) , diabetes (14) and liver disease (15).

The cause of the decreased levels of linoleic and α-linolenic acids is not clear. A much decreased intake of these FAs in relation to saturated FAs is one possibility. Reduced absorption may also be considered, especially in view of the proposed intestinal mucosal changes in psoriasis (10), (16).

Furthermore, in severe psoriasis, there may also be pronounced losses from the skin, not only of FAs, but also of trace elements that are necessary both for the intestinal absorption of linoleic acid and for the further metabolization of the essential FAs. Thus, in psoriasis, zinc losses are probably high (17) and zinc seems to influence the absorption of linoleic acid (10), (18).

Thus, the data which was obtained from our study suggests that psoriasis is a clinically inflammatory skin disease which may per se impose an oxidative stress condition, which leads to other oxidative stress conditions such as myocardial infarction, diabetes and “non specific” liver disease and that these conditions are not primarily caused due to the medications of psoriasis.

References

1.
Wolters. M. Diet and psoriasis: experimental data and clinical evidence. Br J Dermatol 2005;153:706-714
2.
Pietrzak A et al. Activity of serum lipase and the diversity of serum lipids. Med Sci Monit 2002;8(1):9-13
3.
Pesesico A, Zanetti P, Padovan S, Bertoli P. et al. Relation between body weight and blood pressure and some metabolic parameters in psoriatic patients. Br J Dermatol 1988;118:191-194
4.
Mcdonald CJ and Calabresi P. Psoriasis and occlusive vascular disease. Br J Dermatol 1978;99:469- 475
5.
Rocha-Pereira P, Santos-Silva A, Rebelo I, Figueiredo A. et al. Dislipidemia and oxidative stress in mild and in severe psoriasis as a risk for cardiovascular disease. Clinica Chemica Acta 2001;303:33- 39
6.
Vahlquist C, Michaelsson G, Vessby B. Serum lipoproteins in middle aged men with psoriasis. Acta Derm Venerol 1987;67:12-15
7.
Seckin D, Tokgozoglu L, Akkaya S. Are lipoprotein profile and lipoprotein(a) levels altered in men with psoriasis? J Am Acad Dermatol 1994;31:3,445-449
8.
Gowenlock AH. Varley,s Practical Biochemistry.6th ed, CBS publishers: 902-903
9.
Dillard, Kunert KJ. The effects of vitamin E, ascorbic acid and mannitol on alloxan-induced lipid peroxidation in rats. Arch Biochem Biophysics 1982;216(1):202-212
10.
Vahlquist C, Berne B, Boberge M, Michaelsson G. et al. The fattyacid spectrum in plasma and adipose tissue in patients with psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1985;278:114-119
11.
Miettinen TA, Maukkarinen V, Huttunen JK, Mattila S. et al. Fatty acid composition of serum lipids predicts myocardial infarction. Br Med J 1982; 285:683-684
12.
Simpson HCR, Barker K, Carter RD, Cassels E. et al. Low dietary intake of linoleic acid predisposes to myocardial infarction. Br Med J 1982;295:683-684
13.
Wood DA, Butler S, Riemersmaa RA, Thomson M. et al. Adipose tissue and platelet fatty acids and coronary heart disease in Scottish men. Lancet 1984;2:117-121
14.
Schrade W, Boehle E, Biegler R, Harmuth E. Fatty acid composition of lipid fractions in diabetic serum. Lancet 1963;1:285-290
15.
Shapiro HA, Trowbridge JO, Lee JC, Maibach, HI. et al. Liver disease in psoriatics- An effect of methotrexate therapy? Arch Dermatol 1974;110:547-548
16.
Shuster S, Watson AI, Marks J. Small intestine in psoriasis. Br Med J 1967;3:458-460
17.
MacMillen EM, Rowe D. Plasma zinc in psoriasis: relation to surface area involvement. Br J Dermatol 1983;108:301-305
18.
Wallidius G, Michaelsson G, Hardell L-I, Aberg H. The effects of diet and zinc treatment on the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and adipose tissue and on serum lipoproteins in two adolescent patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:512-522

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