Foetal Echocardiography: A Novel Method for Detecting Congenital Heart Disease OC22-OC24
Dr. Sura Adnan Raheem,
Department of Cardiac Cathetrization, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-10047, Iraq.
Introduction: Management and outcomes of prenatal and postnatal cardiac diseases have been affected significantly by prenatal detection of foetal Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Foetal echocardiography plays an important role in this diagnosis.
Aim: To estimate the efficiency of echocardiography in detecting type and frequency of foetal CHD in a group of pregnant women regardless of presenting risk factors.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 263 pregnant women undergoing foetal echocardiography with a gestational age of 20 to 40 weeks referred to the Echocardiography Unit at Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Iraq from April 2016 to June 2018 were included. The women were divided into high, low and no risk groups as per their referral for foetal echocardiography which is in accordance to the American Heart Association. Foetal 2D and Doppler echocardiography was done. Postnatal echocardiography was performed in cases diagnosed with foetal CHD.
Results:A total of 263 pregnant women were included in the study. Fourteen cases of CHD were diagnosed based on abnormal foetal echocardiography. However, only nine of the 14 cases of CHD occurred in high risk mother while the remaining five occurred in mothers with no risk for developing foetal CHD. Twenty-two cardiac abnormalities were detected in those 14 fetuses in which eight fetuses were categorised as having a simple cardiac abnormality and six cases with complex cardiac abnormalities.Complete agreement between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of CHD was observed in 80% of cases.
Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that foetal echocardiography should be recommended to be involved as a part of antenatal screening for all pregnant women regardless of the risk factors among the mother.