Quantifying Serum IL-1ß Cut-Off Point for Detecting Cardiovascular Diseases in a Population from Western Maharashtra BC18-BC21
Dr. Smita Amol Deokar,
302, Adhikari Niwas, Cooper Hospital Campus, Juhu, Vileparle (West), Mumbai-56, India.
Introduction: In India alone in 2000 there were 30 million people suffered with Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD) with 3% prevalence and incidence of HF with CHD is 0.4% to 2.3% per year. There are many traditional and non-traditional risk factors that are associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which are an aetiologically multifactorial. Currently atherosclerosis is not only a lipid disorder but it is the process of active communication between endothelial dysfunction, sub-endothelial inflammation and wound healing process of vascular smooth muscle cells. Inflammation leads to atherosclerosis which results in a CAD where innate and adaptive immune systems play a major role where Interleukin-1 (IL-1) may show a major portion in the development of atherosclerotic CAD by promoting atherogenesis.
Aim: To determine serum IL-1ß levels for detecting CVD patients from Western Maharashtra population.
Materials and Methods: We recruited 229 cases of CVDs (16 cases of complete heart block, one case of congenital heart disease, 22 cases of heart failure, 169 cases of myocardial infarction, one case of myocarditis and 20 cases of rheumatic heart disease) who were enrolled at Cardiology and Medicine Department of Lokamanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai along with 229 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in this case control study. Serum IL-1ß was measured with commercially available ELISA kit. Cut-off level for estimation of IL-1ß was done with Receiver Operative Curve (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007.
Results: The median and Inter Quartile Range (IQR) level of IL-1ß in CVD group was significantly higher than control group (p-value<0.0005). According to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, IL-1ß levels significantly discriminated between CVD and non-CVD condition with the optimal cut off point at 2 pg/mL, sensitivity 37.4% and specificity of 95.6% with a large significant sample size.
Conclusion: Measuring serum IL-1ß level is a highly sensitive and highly specific test for detecting CVDs at the estimated 2 pg/mL cut-off point in this specific CVD patients sample.