The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type I on Periodontal and Dental Status ZC14-ZC17
Dr. Ferial Taleghani,
N71, Italia Str, Vesal Ave, Tehran, Iran.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus type I is a chronic metabolic disease with an autoimmune origin. The initial manifestations mainly appear during childhood and its prevalence is on the rise in many countries. Some of the complications of diabetes mellitus are problems related to oro-dental structures and periodontal diseases.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between diabetes mellitus type I and dental and periodontal status in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 patients with diabetes mellitus type I who were under treatment in the Diabetic Patients’ Center in Tehran and 50 healthy individuals who did not have diabetes, all recruited from schools. The subjects were divided into two age groups of 6-12 and 13-18 years. In test group, HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin) level of the patients was collected from the medical records of Association of Diabetic Patients. To make sure that the control subjects did not suffer from diabetes mellitus, their blood glucose was measured with the Glucocard 01 blood glucose monitoring kit (GT-1920, Japan). The periodontal and dental status were assessed using dmft/DMFT (Decayed, Missing, Filled Permanent Teeth), GI (Gingival Index), PPD (Periodontal Pocket Depth), PI (Plaque Index) and CI (Calculus Index). The data obtained from each group were compared statistically using the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis Test.
Results: There was increase in PPD, GI and DMFT values with aging, with no significant differences between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups. PI and DMFT not only increased with aging but also were higher in both age groups in patients with diabetes compared to healthy subjects (p<0.05). GI was higher only in the 13-18 year age group in diabetic patients (p<0.01). There was no relation between the HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin) level, and periodontal indices (p<0.09).
Conclusion: It appears that patients with diabetes mellitus type I are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and tooth loss and such problems might be aggravated with aging.