Effect of Transdermal Nitroglycerine on Doppler Velocity Waveforms of the Uterine, Umbilical and Fetal Middle Cerebral Arteries in Patients with Chronic Placental Insufficiency: A Prospective RCT QC13-QC17
Dr. Suruchi Gupta,
Medical Officer, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Safdurjung Hospital, Delhi, India.
Introduction: Increase in Nitric Oxide (NO) may be important in vascular adaptation needed to accommodate increased uteroplacental blood flow as pregnancy advances. Hence, in certain conditions like Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR), NO donors may play an effective role in increasing uteroplacental perfusion. Transdermal route appears to be a safe and effective route.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of nitroglycerine patch on Doppler velocity waveforms of the uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries in patients with chronic placental insufficiency.
Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on eighty consecutive pregnant women with FGR with or without PIH and having evidence of altered waveform velocimetry in uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral artery. They were divided into two groups- study and control group. Transdermal nitroglycerine patch (10 mg per 24 hours) was applied in study group for three consecutive days. Changes in various Doppler indices were noted after three days of patch application and compared between the two groups. Analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Studies) for Windows version 20.0 and online GraphPad software (Prism 5 for Windows) version 5.01.
Results: A significant fall in the systolic and diastolic ratio (S/D), Pulsatility Index (PI) and Resistivity Index (RI) of the uterine (3.07±0.52, 1.04±0.14 and 0.54±0.10 respectively, p<0.001) and umbilical artery (3.73±3.30, 1.18±0.21and 0.64±0.07 respectively, p<0.001) was noted after three days of patch application. No such significant change was observed in the middle cerebral artery indices.
Conclusion: The therapeutic approach of NO donor administration via transdermal route in pregnant patients with chronic placental insufficiency, apparently improved both maternal and fetoplacental haemodynamics, thus may help in improving perinatal outcome.