Antibiotic Screening of Urine Culture for Internal Quality Audit at Amrita Hospital, Kochi DC24-DC26
Dr. Anusha Gopinathan,
Department of Microbiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS Ponekkara,
Edapally, Ernakulam, Kochi-682041, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Urine antimicrobial activity is a seldom analysed laboratory test which greatly impacts the quantification of urine specimens. Presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine reduces the bacterial load in these specimens. Hence, the chances of erroneously reporting insignificant bacteriuria can be reduced on analysis of the antimicrobial activity in urine.
Aim: The aim of the study was to measure the antimicrobial activity of urine samples obtained from patients in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 urine specimens were collected from the study group. Tests like wet mount, Gram staining and culture were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on the bacteria isolated from each specimen. The urine specimens were reported as significant bacteriuria (>105 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml) and insignificant bacteriuria (<105 CFU/ml – clean catch midstream urine; <102 CFU/ml – catheterized urine sample) according to the CFU/ml. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™ and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922™ were used to identify the presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine sample by Urine Anti-Bacterial substance Assay (UABA). McNemar test was used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.
Results: On analysis of the antimicrobial activity of urine sample with the prior antibiotic history of the patients, 17 were true positives and 43 were true negatives. Twenty six of samples with UABA positivity were culture negative and 28 samples with UABA positivity were culture positive. Sensitivity and specificity of the test was 85% and 53.8% respectively. Accuracy of the test was 60%. The p-value of UABA was <0.001. Enterobacteriaceae was the most common bacterial family isolated from the urine specimens. A total of 85% patients responded to treatment.
Conclusion: Presence of antimicrobial activity in urine has a great impact on the interpretation of urine culture reports. Identification of urine antimicrobial activity helps in evaluating the quantification of bacterial growth reported in urine culture. It facilitates speedy recovery of patients by early administration of antibiotics.