Impact of Alcohol Dependency on Oral Health – A Cross-sectional Comparative Study ZC43-ZC46
Dr. Kakarla Priyanka,
Postgraduate Student, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Narayana Dental College, Chinthareddypalem,
Nellore -524003, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Alcoholism is a chronic and progressive psychiatric illness characterised by a loss of control over alcohol consumption. Consumption of alcohol inevitably affects the oral cavity, oral mucosa and teeth. Literature indicates that alcohol dependents may have increased risk of dental caries, probing pocket depth and mucosal lesions.
Aim: To assess the impact of alcohol dependency on oral health status among alcoholics in comparison with non alcoholics.
Materials and Methods: A total 76 alcoholic patients visiting Psychiatric Department were compared with matched non alcoholics. Subjects were categorised as alcohol dependents based on American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria. Non alcoholic subjects were selected by controlling for potentially confounding variables such as for cigarette, smoking and age. Data was collected by interview and clinical examination. Oral health status of subjects was assessed using a modified WHO proforma and salivary pH and plaque pH were assessed. Chi-square test was used for assessing socio demographic details and Mann-whitney U test was used for prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases, Unpaired t-test was used for plaque and salivary pH.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference noted among alcoholic and nonalcoholic control group with respect to socio demographic details. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in alcohol dependent subjects with a mean DMFT of 5.92 compared to nonalcoholic subjects (4.51). Prevalence of periodontitis was higher (89.61%) in alcohol dependent subjects compared to controls (78.67%). Prevalence of mucosal lesions among alcohol dependent subjects was 31.5% which was higher than the controls (25%). Subjects who were categorised as alcoholics showed a lower plaque and salivary pH compared to non alcoholics.
Conclusion: Subjects categorised as alcohol dependent subjects had slightly lower mean plaque and salivary pH and a higher prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis and mucosal lesions compared with non alcoholic subjects