Comparison of the Effect of PRP, PRF and Induced Bleeding in the Revascularization of Teeth with Necrotic Pulp and Open Apex: A Triple Blind Randomized Clinical Trial ZC34-ZC39
Dr. Vasundara Yayathi Shivashankar,
No.6/9, Fisrt Street, Balaji Nagar, Anakaputhur-600070, Chennai, India.
Introduction: Treatment of a tooth with necrotic pulp and open apex is a special challenge to the clinicians. Apexification with calcium hydroxide and MTA barrier technique fails to induce continued root maturation which makes the tooth susceptible to root fracture. Hence, an ideal outcome for such a tooth should be regeneration of pulp like tissue into the root canal capable of continuing normal root maturation.
Aim: This study aims to compare the effect of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF), induced bleeding technique and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in the revascularization of tooth with necrotic pulp and open apex. The main objectives of the study were to: (a) Radiographically evaluate the continuation of root development, increase in the dentin wall thickness and narrowing of canal space, apical closure and resolution of the periapical lesion; and to (b) To clinically evaluate the response to pulp sensibility testing and response to percussion and palpation tests.
Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (6 to 28 years) with necrotic immature permanent tooth were randomly categorised into three groups after the root canal disinfection procedure. PRF as scaffolding material (Group A: n=20), revascularization with conventional induced bleeding technique (Group B: n=20), and PRP as the biomaterial (Group C: n=20). The primary outcome variable was measured using Periapical Index (PAI) (for periapical healing), Chen and Chen index (for apical responses), Schei’s ruler (for root lengthening and root thickening) and other clinical parameters. The Chi-square test was used to interpret the data among the three groups at the end of 12 months for the variables root lengthening and lateral wall thickness. ANOVA test was performed to compare the mean of the PAI scores of the three groups at preoperative stage and 12 months. If statistically significant, Bonferroni test was done to compare the outcome among the three groups. The significant level was set at p<0.05. Kappa agreement was used to see whether the clinical criteria of success (asymptomatic) were in agreement with radiographic criteria.
Results: At the end of 12 months, patients presented with no pain and no signs of reinfection or no radiographic enlargement of the pre-existing apical pathosis in all the three groups. PRP was better than PRF and induced bleeding technique with respect to periapical wound healing when used in the regenerative endodontic procedures. The groups were comparable on grounds of root lengthening and lateral wall thickening. Type 3 apical response was the most common apical response in all the three groups.
Conclusion: On analysing the pros and cons of the techniques performed, it is wise to establish induced bleeding technique as the standard endodontic procedure for revascularization of a non vital immature permanent tooth.