Nutritional Intake in Low Body Mass Index (BMI) Males with Type 1 Diabetes and Fibrocalcific Pancreatic Diabetes: What are the Unmet Needs? A Cross-Sectional Study from a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital OC06-OC09
Dr. Riddhi Dasgupta,
Assistant Professor, Department of Endocrinology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: There is paucity of data on the nutritional intake in low Body Mass Index (BMI) Asian Indians with diabetes.
Aim: To study the difference in the nutrient intake pattern in low-BMI Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and Fibrocalcific Pancreatic Diabetes (FCPD) patients.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of T1DM (n=40) and FCPD (n=20) male patients with similar BMI. Nutritional data was collected using the 24 hour recall method and food diaries. Fasting blood samples were analysed for lipid profile, serum creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, albumin, calcium and vitamin D. Stool samples were analysed for pancreatic elastase. Percentage analysis, Independent sample t-test and Pearson coefficient correlation were used to analyse the data. A p-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The FCPD patients, on biochemical analysis, had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to the T1DM group (p=0.035). However, haemoglobin, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, creatinine, albumin and calcium were similar between the groups. In the nutrient data, FCPD patients had a significant higher intake of fat (p=0.039), fibre (p<0.001), calcium (p=0.047), phosphorous (p=0.035), and niacin (p=0.001) and calories from fat (p=0.047). The T1DM group had a significantly higher intake of thiamine (p=0.047) and carbohydrates (p=0.014).
Conclusion: T1DM and FCPD groups have similar dietary pattern deficit in fibre, calories, macronutrients and micronutrients. Malabsorption and poor glycaemic control in FCPD patients can be attributed to a higher dietary fat intake. A balanced diet can ensure better glycaemic control.