Use of Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Craniotomies UC01-UC08
Dr. Nilesh Wasekar,
Department of Anaesthesia, jj Campus Byculla-400012, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: The neuroanaesthesia ensures stable perioperative cerebral haemodynamics, avoids sudden rise in intracranial pressure and prevents acute brain swelling. The clinical characteristics of dexmeditomidine make this intravenous agent a potentially attractive adjunct for neuroanaesthesia and in the neurological intensive care unit.
Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative haemodynamic stability and to assess the intraoperative requirements of analgesic and other anaesthetic agents and also to assess postoperative sedation, respiratory depression and any other side effects of dexmedetomidine as compared to placebo.
Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was done in 60 patients of either sex, age between 18 to 60 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) Grade I and II undergoing elective craniotomies under General Anaesthesia (GA) for intracranial Space Occupying Lesion (SOL). These 60 patients underwent thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. They were randomly divided into two groups, Group D (received Inj. Dexmedetomidine) and Group P (received Inj. Placebo). During bolus and infusion Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO2) was recorded at every five minutes interval for first 20 minute.
Results: The mean age in Group D was 39.5 years and in Group P was 40 years. The sex distribution in two groups was in Group D, 12 patients (40%) were females and 18 (60%) patients were males. While in Group P 10 (33.3%) were females and 20 (66.7%) patients were males. The two groups were comparable with respect to diagnosis and type of surgery of patients and difference was not statistically significant. The mean HR, the mean DBP and the mean MAP was lower in Group D as compared to Group P and the difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine provided intraoperative haemodynamic stability. It attenuates the haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy, intubation, at pin fixation and the emergence from anaesthesia.