Molecular Classification of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma ZE18-ZE21
Dr. Reshma Venugopal,
Lecturer, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences and Hospital,
Sir MVIT campus, Hunasamarenahalli, off New International Airport Road, via Yelahanka,
Bengaluru-562157, Karnataka, India.
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the commonest tumour in the oro-facial region with increasing incidence in the recent years. The disease is challenging as it still depicts a high morbidity and mortality rate. Clinico-pathological data, tumour site, pathologic site tumor, lymphnode, metastasis (TNM) staging, histological grade, invasion, perineural invasion and metastasis have been evaluated to a great depth in relation to OSCC. Co-morbidity factors like use of tobacco, alcohol consumption and various other factors including genetic predisposition have been looked at for finding a suitable treatment protocol. The crux of the matter in understanding the complexity of oral cancer lies in the biological heterogeneity of the tumour. Similar heterogeneity is seen in clinical presentation, histopathology and molecular changes at the cellular level. In spite of the disease being diagnosed, a prediction of the same related to behaviour has remained elusive. Hence, it is time to look beyond at the genetic and epigenetic events leading to molecular and cytogenetic changes that elucidate the pathogenesis and help in design and implementation of targeted drug therapy. A molecular classification of OSCC needs to be put in place much before a clinician can design the treatment protocol of the same and predict the prognosis.