Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Incidence, Risk Factors and Outcome in Paediatric Intensive Care Units at Cairo University Hospital SC06-SC11
Dr. Meray Rene Labib. Youssef,
Faculty of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics, Cairo University, Egypt.
Introduction: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. Although the epidemiology, pathogenesis and outcome of VAP are well described in adults; few data exist regarding VAP in paediatric patients, especially in developing countries.
Aim: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of VAP in two Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) at Cairo University Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A total of 427 patients who received Mechanical Ventilation (MV) were included in this prospective study during the period from September 2014 till September 2015. Patients were observed daily till VAP occurrence, discharge from the unit or death, whichever came first. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, radiographic and microbiological reports were recorded for all patients.
Results: Nearly 31% patients developed VAP among the entire cohort. The incidence density was 21.3 per 1000 ventilator days. The most frequently isolated organisms from VAP patients were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (47.7%), Acinetobacter (18.2%) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (14.4%). VAP patients were significantly younger than non-VAP ones. The incidence of VAP in comatose patients and those with MOSF was significantly higher. Prior antibiotic use for > 48 h before MV, supine body positioning and reintubation were significantly associated with VAP. On multiple logistic regression analysis, MOSF; prior antibiotic use > 48h; reintubation; coma; and age remained independent predictors of VAP. Mortality rate among the VAP group was significantly higher compared to the non-VAP one (68.2% vs. 48.5%, p<0.001). Survival curve analysis showed a shorter median survival time in VAP patients.
Conclusion: Identification of risk factors and outcome of VAP in PICUs may help in reducing the incidence and improving patients’ outcomes. The incidence of VAP in this study was relatively high. The most prominent risk factors for occurrence of VAP were MOSF, prior antibiotic use for > 48 h before MV, reintubation, coma and age. Proper use of antibiotics before MV in PICUs is essential. Also, adequate training of nurses and strict supervision of infection control protocols are crucial. Lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis of VAP and difficulty in sampling procedures were among the study limitations.