Morphometric Study of Clavicular Facet of Coracoclavicular Joint in Adult Indian Population AC08-AC11
Dr. Sushant Swaroop Das,
Senior Resident, Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
Introduction: Anthropologists have used Coracoclavicular Joint (CCJ), a non-metric anatomical variant in population, as a marker for population migration from prehistoric times to present.
Aim: The aim of this osteological study was to determine the incidence and morphometry of articular facet of CCJ on conoid tubercle of clavicle in Indian population, as Indian studies are scanty and incomplete.
Materials and Methods: The study was done on 144 adult human clavicles (76 right and 68 left; 93 males and 51 females) collected from osteology museum in Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. The presence of articular facet on the conoid tubercle was determined and Maximum Antero-Posterior (MAPD) and maximum transverse diameter (MTD) was measured by digital vernier calliper. The incidence was compared on the basis of sex, side and with other osteological studies in the world. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi-Square test for nominal categorical data and student’s t-test for normally distributed continuous variables in Microsoft Excel 2007 to assess the relationship between the examined variables.
Results: Articular facet on conoid tubercle was found in 8 cases (5.6%). Seven (9.2%) were present on the right side and one (1.5%) on the left side. Seven cases (7.5%) were present in males and one case (2%) was found in females. The facets were generally oval, with MAPD and MTD of 12.28 and 17.17 mm respectively. A significant side variation was present with right sided facet being more common. The left sided facet was more transversely elongated than right. In males, the facets were more elongated antero-posteriorly than in females.
Conclusion: The Indian population showed an incidence of 5.6%, which was comparable to other ethnic groups in world population. The morphometric and side differences could be attributed to the occupational factors and range of movements associated with the CCJ. The CCJ should be borne in mind as a differential diagnosis for thoracic outlet syndrome and in general for shoulder pain.