Cognitive Ability as a Determinant of Socioeconomic and Oral Health Status among Adolescent College Students of Bengaluru, India ZC62-ZC66
Dr. Rekha Rao Karnam,
No. 271, 2nd B Main, 11th Cross, Bel Layout, 1st Block, Vidyaranyapura, Bangalore-97, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field.
Aim: To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Six government and six private first grade colleges were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Cognitive ability was assessed using digit symbol substitution test and digit span test. Dental caries and periodontal status were recorded by extent of bleeding, presence of calculus, periodontal pockets, loss of attachments using Community Periodontal Index, decayed, missing and filled teeth surfaces using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth and Surfaces Index. SES status was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale. Chi-square test was used to check the association of cognitive ability with oral health indicators and SES status. Regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of cognitive ability on oral health indicators after adjusting for SES and effect of SES status on oral health indicators after adjusting for indicators of cognitive ability.
Results: Significant association and negative correlation between cognitive ability and indicators for oral health was seen in the regression models. Cognitive ability attributed for nearly 30% changes in the indicators for oral health after adjusting for SES and SES attributed for nearly 25% variance in indicators for oral health after adjusting for cognitive ability.
Conclusion: There is a potential role of cognitive ability in SES and oral health.